n Southern African Journal of Critical Care - Benner is back! : editorial

Volume 24, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1562-8264
  • E-ISSN: 2078-676X



Benner's model of skill acquisition, based on ascending levels of proficiency, was originally developed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus, Benner and Dreyfus, all of whom claimed that the model could be generalised for nursing. Benner used the model originally proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1980) and described nurses as passing through five levels of development: Novice, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient and Expert (see 'Benner's Stages of Clinical Competence' overleaf). Each step builds on the previous one as abstract principles are refined and expanded by experience and the learner gains clinical expertise.

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