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- South African Journal of Child Health
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- Volume 10, Issue 1, 2016
South African Journal of Child Health - Volume 10, Issue 1, 2016
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2016
Prevalence and nature of communication delays in a South African primary healthcare context : researchSource: South African Journal of Child Health 10, pp 87 –91 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.2016.v10i1.1121More Less
Background. Communication delays are the most common impairment in early childhood and have a negative effect on long-term academic, psychological and social development. Baseline prevalence of communication delays or disorders enables adequate planning of service delivery and successful implementation of intervention strategies, to reduce disorder prevalence.
Objective. To determine the prevalence and describe the nature of communication delays in infants aged 6 - 12 months in underserved communities in South Africa (SA).
Method. A parent interview and the Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale (RITLS) were used to collect data from the caregivers of 201 infants aged 6 - 12 months by means of convenience sampling at primary healthcare facilities in the Tshwane district, SA.
Results. Thirteen percent (n=26) of infants were diagnosed with communication delay. Associations affecting language delays were established for three risk factors (i.e. housing status, age of mother and number of siblings). The effect of combined risk factors on language development revealed that an infant was at greatest risk (27% probability) of developing a language delay when: (i) mothers were between the ages of 19 and 34 years; (ii) parents owned their own home; and (iii) there were three or more children in the household.
Conclusion. The prevalence of communication delays in the sample population was high, possibly because the majority of infants were exposed to risk factors. The implementation of preventive measures such as awareness campaigns and developmental screening and surveillance should be considered in the SA primary healthcare context.
An analysis of national data on care-seeking behaviour by parents of children with suspected pneumonia in Nigeria : researchSource: South African Journal of Child Health 10, pp 92 –95 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.2016.v10i1.1076More Less
Background. Pneumonia is responsible for 940 000 under-5 deaths annually. Most of these deaths result from delays in instituting effective treatment.
Objectives. To determine care-seeking behaviour by parents of children with pneumonia and sociodemographic factors that influence decisions to seek appropriate care.
Methods. The study was an analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013, which was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using a stratified cluster design of 40 680 households. All children under-5 living in the surveyed households with suspected pneumonia in the preceding 2 weeks were recruited along with their mothers. Sociodemographic characteristics of the parents and where they sought care for their child were obtained. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of various sociodemographic variables to the decision on seeking appropriate medical care.
Results. Of the 28 950 children surveyed, 565 had suspected pneumonia, which equates to an occurrence rate of 19.5 per 1 000 children. About 36% of parents were judged to have sought appropriate care when their children had pneumonia. High paternal education, health decision-making by both husband and wife, and belonging to the higher quintiles on a wealth index were factors that positively influenced care-seeking behaviour.
Conclusion. Care-seeking behaviour for pneumonia is poor. Paternal education and joint decision-making are key determinants of parents seeking appropriate care for their children with suspected pneumonia in Nigeria.
Source: South African Journal of Child Health 10, pp 96 –98 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.2016.v10i1.1050More Less
Neutropenia is a common finding in ill paediatric patients and can be conveniently subdivided into that due to decreased production or increased destruction. Intrinsic defects in granulocytes or their progenitors or extrinsic factors such as infection, drugs and autoimmune phenomena are the main causes. Our case focuses on cyclic neutropenia presenting with severe chronic diarrhoea lasting 17 weeks, multiple recurrent bacterial infections and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). To our knowledge this is the first case of pulmonary TB described in association with cyclic neutropenia and chronic diarrhoea in Africa.
Ecthyma gangrenosum caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in a neutropenic leukaemic infant : a case report : case reportSource: South African Journal of Child Health 10, pp 99 –100 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.2016.v10i1.957More Less
Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous lesion, mostly caused by pseudomonas in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been reported. It can occasionally affect previously healthy children. The cutaneous findings are characterised by small indurated papulovesicles, progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black eschar. Sites most commonly involved are the buttocks, perineum, limbs and axillae; the face is less commonly involved. We are presenting a rare case of EG in a neutropenic infant who had just completed the induction phase of chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The gangrenous lesion was on the face involving the tip of the nose, which is an uncommon location. Blood and pus cultures grew Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which is a rare cause of EG. The patient was treated with IV antibiotics (colistin for 14 days) and improved.