n South African Journal of Child Health - Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school entrants in Jos, Nigeria




Urinalysis as a part of medical examination of fitness in schoolchildren is useful in detecting abnormalities that could identify early disease conditions.

To describe the urine examination findings in apparently healthy newly enrolled primary school entrants in Jos, Plateau.
Through a multistage stratified randomisation procedure, 650 apparently healthy pupils were selected to have a complete physical examination in the morning with mid-stream urine samples collection. The urine samples were examined for abnormalities using dipsticks.
There were 301 boys and 349 girls (ratio 0.9:1). Their mean age was 6.6±1.3 years (range 5 - 12 years). Urinary abnormalities were present in 63 (9.6%) of the subjects, with most in the 6 - 8-year age group. Proteinuria was the most common abnormality, detected in 23 (3.5%), and next, urobilinogen in 12 (1.8%) subjects. The latter was significantly greater in male and private school subjects (=0.03). Haematuria and nitrituria were present in 10 (1.5%) subjects, while 11 (1.7%) had bilirubinuria. Four (0.6%) subjects had ketones in their urine but none had glycosuria. Two pupils (0.2%) had both haematuria and proteinuria but no associated elevated blood pressure.
Urine abnormalities are not uncommon in new school entrants; this study underscores the importance of urine examination in children at the point of school entry.


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