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- Volume 17, Issue 1, 2004
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 17, Issue 1, 2004
Volumes & issues
Volume 17, Issue 1, 2004
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 3 –5 (2004)More Less
The HPCSA CPD system as a whole is in the process of being revised with a view to implementing improvements, more specifically for the medical and dental practitioners. In this regard, in March 2003, a consultant was contracted to evaluate and redress the system. The full report of the consultant was submitted in July2003 and forms part of a letter by the HPCSA, which will be or has been circulated to ALL health professionals, including dietitians.In order to avoid any confusion,the CPD Committee of the Professional Board for Dietetics wishes to advise and confirm that, for dietitians, the status quo with regard to CPD will remain, until further notice.
Gathering data on early-life nutritional exposures in communities undergoing transition - a platform on which to formulate or evaluate nutrition policy decisions : editorialAuthor Estelle V. LambertSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 7 –8 (2004)More Less
South Africa and many of its neighbours on the African continent may be characterised as countries undergoing rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition. An important aspect of this transition is the coexistence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, many of which may be prevented, or the adverse sequelae of which may be attenuated, through the implementation of various nutritional and lifestyle interventions. In this context, issues concerning measurement of both nutritional status and various environmental, demographic and even inter-generational exposures become increasingly significant.
Assessment of body composition in lactating mothers in a rural African community using deuterium oxideSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 10 –15 (2004)More Less
Background and objective. The deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method for measuring body composition was validated against the widely used skinfold (SF) measurement-based equation of Durnin and Womersley. The study involved 10 lactating women living in a rural community in Nandi, Kenya and participating in a cross-sectional study aimed at determining their iron and vitamin A status.
Methods. The selection criteria were exclusive breast-feeding, infants between 2 and 4 months of age,maternal parity <4, birth weight more than 2 500 g and no congenital abnormalities. Maternal and infant-anthropometric measurements were taken.DO (approximately 0.1 g 2H2O/kg body water) was given orally to each mother accordingly to the Maastricht protocol (DO) for total body water (TBW) determination. The 2H enrichment of the urine was measured using gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected. Serum retinol and ferritin were determined using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was determined as weight/height (m2).The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparison was used to compare maternal fat-free mass (FFM), body fat (BF)and percentage body fat (% BF) that were determined based on the DO and SF techniques.
Results. Maternal mean (± standard deviation (SD)) for parity, age, BMI, haemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin and serum retinol were 3 (2), 26 (4) years, 23.4 (4), 12.1 (1.8) g/dl, 10.3 (4.0) µg/l and 0.696 (0.300) µmol/l respectively. The FFM, BF and % BF accordingly to the DO and SF methods respectively were 44.0 (4.7)kg v. 42.9 (5.9) kg, 16.7 (8.8) kg v. 17.8 (7.5) kg and 26.2 (8.1)% v. 28.4 (6.4)%. Limits of agreement for underestimation of FFM and % BF were 4.4 kg (SEE 3.4) and 11.6% (SEE 5.8) respectively. Bias in the measurement of FFM and % BF was 1.1 kg (SEE 1.9), and -2.2% (SEE 3.3) respectively.
Conclusion The variability (5.8 - 17.5%) observed in the SF technique may result in lower prediction of% BF. This may be an important factor for community-based nutritional interventions that aim at improving the body composition of vulnerable groups such as pregnant and lactating women or subjects with severe undernutrition.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of iron and folate supplementation during pregnancy in a rural area of Limpopo provinceSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 15 –21 (2004)More Less
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of iron and folate supplementation in antenatal clinics.
Design. A cross-sectional analytical study.
Setting. Villages in the central region of Limpopo province, which are serviced by Mankweng Hospital.
Subjects. Third-trimester pregnant women (N = 262) attending antenatal clinics at eight local clinics in the villages.
Results. The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 10.5 g/dl) in this study population was 16.4%. The mean number of clinic visits during pregnancy was 4.1 (standard deviation (SD) 2.18). There were no differences in clinic attendance for the anaemic and non-anaemic participants. Maternal weight was found to be lower (p = 0.051) in the anaemic than the non-anaemic group. Iron, vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies are still common in this area, with 50.9%, 16.4% and 10.3% of the pregnant women respectively having biochemical evidence of these deficiencies. In the anaemic group iron deficiency was the most prevalent deficiency, with 62.8% of the women having iron deficiency (serum ferritin <12 µg/ml). In the non-anaemic group there was a significant negative correlation between both serum and red cell folate and the time of first visit to the clinic, indicating that folate supplementation given by the clinics is effective in prevention of folate deficiency.
Conclusion. Although both iron and folate supplements are issued at antenatal clinics in the central area of Limpopo province, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia are still prevalent in pregnant women. However there has been a marked improvement in the prevalence of folate deficiency.
Author Karl PeltzerSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 24 –31 (2004)More Less
The aim of the study was to investigate gaps in nutrition knowledge and the relationship between nutrition knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics in an urban black and white South African population. The sample included 90 blacks and 90 whites living in former white and black urban areas in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, chosen by systematic random sampling via a telephone survey. Measures used included a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Results indicate that both blacks and whites seem to have a reasonable knowledge of dietary recommendations and sources of nutrients but have less knowledge on the diet-disease relationship, particularly with regard to choosing everyday foods that are healthier. Whites have significantly more general nutrition knowledge than blacks.Although there was no significant difference when comparing black and white men on general nutrition knowledge, black women had significantly lower nutrition knowledge than white women.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 32 –34 (2004)More Less
Objective. To investigate whether or not iodine deficiency and endemic goitre currently prevail among the children attending a primary school near Worcester in the Western Cape, as was suggested by the results of the national iodine deficiency survey carried out 2 years previously.
Design. A cross-sectional study of all Grade 5 and 6 children attending the school.
Methods. The iodine status of the 66 participants (42 boys and 24 girls) in the study was assessed by means of the urinary iodine concentration, and the size of their thyroid glands was determined by palpation and by ultrasonography. Anthropometric measurements of their body height and weight were made. In addition, household salt samples were obtained from these children, retail salt samples were purchased at the nearest small food shops in the area of the school, and water samples were taken at the school for iodine analysis.
Results. The goitre prevalence (by palpation) in the whole group was 7.6%, accompanied by a median urinary iodine concentration of 177.5 µg/l, which reflected an adequate dietary iodine intake. The median thyroid volume of 2.8 ml was also low, and only 2 children (3%) with enlarged thyroid volumes were detected ultrasonographically. Although the iodine concentration in retailer and household salt samples varied somewhat, it provided sufficient iodine to these children.
Conclusion. The mild iodine deficiency that existed 2 years previously in these schoolchildren has been eradicated, most likely by the adequate amount of iodine in the salt.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 35 –36 (2004)More Less
The first meeting of the new 2004 - 2008 Professional Board for Dietetics was held on 9 February in Pretoria. The Professional Board was constituted in terms of the regulations relating to the Constitution of the Professional Board for Dietetics, Regulation No. R 1058 of 28 July 2003.