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- Volume 17, Issue 3, 2004
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 17, Issue 3, 2004
Volumes & issues
Volume 17, Issue 3, 2004
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 78 –79 (2004)More Less
Roche wins international Communiqué Award
Bayer to acquire Roche Consumer Health
MRC dietary assessment and education kit launched
Nutritional Foods launches nutritional range of products
Obituary - Australian Dutchman who tarred the way to wither micronutrient malnutrition
Author D.F. WittenbergSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 81 –82 (2004)More Less
Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breastmilk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been used extensively in milk banks, and numerous examples are known of women successfully initiating breast-feeding of unrelated infants despite not having recently been pregnant.
Author A.A. ForderSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17 (2004)More Less
The article by Joosten and Lardeau in this issue of SAJCN (p. 87) looks at the microbiological safety of acidified infant formula feeds as tested in vitro. The authors rightly point to diarrhoea as being one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among infants in developing countries, especially those under the age of 5 years. Such diarrhoea is often associated with poor hygienic conditions and subsequent contamination of made-up infant feeds with potential enterobacterial pathogens. It is known that breastfeeding reduces exposure to these potential pathogens as well as supplying the infant with appropriate nutrients and protective antibodies, so decreasing the incidence of diarrhoea.
Glutamine, heat shock protein, and inflammation - opportunity from the midst of difficulty : editorialAuthor Paul WischmeyerSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 84 –86 (2004)More Less
In 1985 I was a typical 15-year-old boy, obsessed with playing soccer and trying to figure out what I wanted to be when I grew up. My life changed dramatically when I was told I had inflammatory bowel disease, specifically ulcerative colitis. In the same discussion I was told I would not be able to eat or drink anything for the next few weeks. What a thing to tell a teenage boy - I lost 60 pounds over the next weeks, the steroids I was on failed to slow the progression of my disease and the side-effects were maddening. This led the physicians at the community hospital I was at to throw up their hands and transfer me to the University of Chicago Hospital where I was told I was to be given total parenteral nutrition (TPN) via an intravenous line in my shoulder.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 87 –92 (2004)More Less
Objectives. To determine growth behaviour of pathogens and spoilage micro-organisms in infant formulas after reconstitution, and comparison of the bacteriostatic effect of acidified formulas obtained through fermentation or by direct addition of lactic acid.
Design. Four commercially available infant formulas were deliberately contaminated with eight different pathogens and stored at 4, 25 or 37°C. Growth of the micro-organisms was followed by enumeration after 0, 3 and 6 hours. In a second challenge test the fate of pathogens added to a fermented infant formula was compared with that of pathogens in a non-fermented acidified formula.
Results. After a lag phase of a few hours, most of the examined micro-organisms grew well in the pH-neutral products at 37°C. At 25°C growth was clearly retarded and at 4°C no significant growth was detected within 6 hours. Fermented formula exerted an inhibitory effect on all micro-organisms. The same effect was observed with a non-fermented acidified formula.
Conclusions. Because pH-neutral reconstituted infant formulas may support rapid growth of many undesirable micro-organisms, including pathogens, utmost care should be taken to prevent contamination, and storage under conditions favouring growth of pathogens should be avoided. Alternatively, prevention of rapid microbial proliferation in infant formulas may be achieved by acidification, either through fermentation or by direct addition of lactic acid, provided that the pH is lower than 5.0.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 94 –100 (2004)More Less
Objective. To investigate the nutritional relationship between dietary intake and prevalence of anaemia among Tanzanian schoolchildren.
Methods. Dietary intakes of 101 schoolchildren aged 7 - 12 years were assessed using a pre-tested food frequency questionnaire. Haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and serum ferritin (SF) were used to determine their anaemia and iron status. Other socio-economic variables were collected using a profile questionnaire.
Results. Significantly lower intake of iron was seen in 48% of schoolchildren with Hb < 11.5 g/dl (anaemic) compared with those who were normal. Total iron intake was 22 + 7 and 27 + 13 mg/day respectively (p < 0.05). There was a general poor intake of iron from animal sources in all children. A higher iron intake was found in schoolchildren with normal iron status (by EP and SF levels) than in those who were not normal (26 + 11 mg/day v. 22 + 9 mg/day, p < 0.05). Iron deficiency was found in 45% of schoolchildren (N = 80) and 31% were categorised as having iron deficiency anaemia. The mean energy intake in boys was higher than in girls (2 150 + 770 v. 1 830 + 895 kcal/day respectively). Boys also had a higher intake of ascorbic acid (50 + 32 v. 31 + 23 mg/day, p >0.05). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, daily iron intake remained the most significant nutrient predicting for Hb status. There was a significant correlation between iron intake and serum ferritin (r = 0.233, p < 0.05).
Conclusion. Iron intake in this Tanzanian community is inadequate for maintaining normal iron nutrition. The factors contributing to the inadequacy include consumption of foods with low iron bioavailability. Food-based intervention should be one of the important strategies for reducing the magnitude of the problem of anaemia in this community.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, pp 102 –108 (2004)More Less
Objectives. To determine the knowledge and intake of calcium among white adolescent girls in Gauteng, South Africa.
Design. A quantitative study using a questionnaire interview conducted over 13 months (1 June 2000 - 31 July 2001).
Settings. Sixteen randomly selected private and state schools in the Gauteng area.
Subjects. Adolescent white girls aged between 15 and 17 years.
Outcome measures. Calcium intake and knowledge using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 7-day weighed records (WRS).
Results. Mean calcium intake according to the FFQ was 811 mg/day (adequate intake (AI) 1 300 mg/day). Fifty-one per cent of participants had not been given any information relating to calcium and its benefits. Teachers and parents are the most noted sources of information and 31% of the participants knew that adolescence was the most important period for calcium absorption and bone building.
Conclusions. Adolescents have low intakes of calcium compared with what is recommended. It is important to develop intervention programmes that target children, adolescents, teachers and mothers alike. It is also imperative to develop awareness of the importance of calcium consumption during childhood and adolescence in order to minimise the possibility of osteoporosis in later life.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17 (2004)More Less
The Nutrition Society of South Africa is a scientific organisation and the main aims are to advance the scientific study of nutrition; to promote objective dissemination of knowledge related to nutrition; and to promote strategies for the improvement of nutritional well-being.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17 (2004)More Less
It was indeed a privilege to see so many of you at the Nutrition Congress (23 - 27 August) held at Goudini. The wealth of knowledge that this congress brought should not end there. I challenge each one of you ... ADSA membership totalled 1 342 during 2004, the highest paid up membership total in the association's history. This makes ADSA representative of close to 90% of all dietitians in South Africa. As the new committee we wish to remind you of the ADSA Vision and Mission, and the wide representation of ADSA on various committees and organisations.