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- Volume 20, Issue 3, 2007
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 20, Issue 3, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 20, Issue 3, 2007
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20, pp 87 –88 (2007)More Less
The findings of the National Food Consumption Survey of 1999 identified, among other parameters, the foods most commonly consumed in the country by type and amount, and paved the way for the statutory fortification of maize and wheat products. The legislation was enacted in April 2003 and implemented in October of the same year. Thanks to the tireless efforts of many role players in government, academic institutions and the food industry, South Africa became one of the many developing and developed countries that have implemented food fortification as a means of addressing micronutrient deficiencies (Ireland being the latest developed country to adopt this approach voluntarily).
Folate and iron status of South African non-pregnant rural women of childbearing age, before and after fortification of foodsSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20, pp 89 –93 (2007)More Less
Objective. To assess the effect of fortification of staple foods on the folate and iron status of women of childbearing age.
Design. A prospective cohort study was undertaken.
Setting. Dikgale Demographic Surveillance Site, a rural area in the Capricorn district of Limpopo Province.
Subjects. Non-pregnant women of childbearing age, 18 - 44 years (N=80).
Outcome measures. Serum folate, ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate and full blood count.
Results. The prevalence of low serum folate (<3ng/ml) in the study population was 27.6% before fortification; after fortification, none of the women had low serum folate. Low red cell folate (<164 ng/ml) was observed in 26.4% of subjects before fortification, and in 1.9% of subjects after fortification. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (<145 pg/ml) was 6.3% during phase 1 of the study and increased to 11.3% during phase 2. Low haemoglobin levels were present in 7.5% of women before fortification, and in 5% of women after fortification. The percentage of women with low ferritin levels was similar before and after fortification (25%).
Conclusion. The study shows a significant improvement in folate status in women of childbearing age approximately 9 months after fortification of maize and wheat foodstuffs in South Africa, whereas no improvement in iron status as measured by serum ferritin was observed.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20, pp 96 –99 (2007)More Less
Objective. To assess the effect of nutritional support on the nutritional status of hospitalised children with nephroblastoma.
Design. A retrospective, descriptive study.
Setting. A tertiary academic hospital in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal.
Outcome measure. Changes in weight with oral nutritional supplementation or nasogastric tube feeding.
Results. Complete data were available for 37 patients with a median age of 47.5 months and a median hospital stay of 7 months. Seventeen patients (45%) were malnourished on admission. All 37 patients received oral nutritional supplements in the form of additional snacks and oral nutritional drinks, and they had a significant median weight gain of 1.46 kg (-1.95 to 7.20 kg) during the period of study, which significantly exceeded the expected median weight gain of 342 g (p<0.01, Wilcoxon signed ranks test). Seventeen patients (45%) received nasogastric (NG) feeds at some stage of their treatment. Patients were selected for tube feeding based on the clinicians' assessment of their clinical features and anthropometry and ability to tolerate oral feeding. Despite their more severe clinical diathesis, they gained as much weight as those not receiving nasogastric feeding. (p=0.20; Mann-Whitney U-test).
Twenty-two patients (58%) received Filgastrim. Overall, patients on Filgastrim gained less weight than those not receiving Filgastrim (p=0.04; Mann-Whitney U-test). Twenty-five patients (66%) received radiotherapy. Radiotherapy did not independently influence the change in weight (p=0.15, Mann-Whitney U-test).
Conclusion. With aggressive nutritional support, patients being treated for nephroblastoma gained more weight over the treatment period than accounted for by normal expected growth. Chemotoxicity was shown to have a negative effect on weight gain. Such patients, and those with pre-existing malnutrition, should in future be targeted to receive nasogastric feeds.
Despite this being a retrospective descriptive study, with clear limitations and incomplete data, it suggests that early and continuous aggressive nutritional assessments and support are beneficial.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20, pp 102 –108 (2007)More Less
Owing to the paucity of data in South Africa regarding older people (>60 years) living in homes for the aged, the aim of this study was to evaluate their nutritional status in a convenient sample of homes for the aged (N=4) in the Somerset West area.
In the descriptive, cross-sectional study, nutritional status was evaluated by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as well as traditional anthropometric measurements independently. Nutrient intake was determined using menu, plate wastage and food acceptability data.
The study population consisted of 53 male and 157 female older people with a mean age of 76.8 years (SD 10.6). The mean body mass index BMI was 25.6 (SD 5.17). According to the MNA, 6% of the older people were malnourished, and 47% were at risk for malnutrition. Had the independent anthropometric measurements been used, fewer older people would have been identified as at risk of malnutrition. After correcting for plate wastage, the average energy consumption was 6 963 kJ. Nutrient values <67% of the recommended intakes for older men and women were observed for vitamin D, folic acid and calcium; and energy, carbohydrates and vitamin C for men specifically. Food items with the most plate wastage (>50%) were the starchy menu items, cooked vegetables and lunch protein dishes.
The MNA is a valuable instrument in identifying older people at risk of malnutrition, thus allowing for early intervention. There was a relationship between malnutrition and lower energy intake, emphasising the need for meticulous menu planning and monitoring of food consumption, and the need for addressing specific micronutrients.
Author Vikash SewramSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20, pp 119 –120 (2007)More Less
The Nutrition Society of South Africa is a scientific organisation and the main aims are to advance the scientific study of nutrition; to promote objective dissemination of knowledge related to nutrition; and to promote strategies for the improvement of nutritional well-being.