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- Volume 21, Issue 1, 2008
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 21, Issue 1, 2008
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 1, 2008
Author Benny KerznerSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
Abbott Nutrition recently brought prominent paediatric gastroenterologist Professor Benny Kerzner to South Africa to deliver a series of insightful lectures on 'Oral feeding resistance in young children' to medical and nutritional professionals. Prof. Kerzner is an ex-South African who obtained both his BSc in Biology and his medical degree at the University of Witwatersand. He is the emeritus chairman of the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Children's National Medical Center and Professor of Paediatrics at George Washington University School of Medicine in Washington DC.
Author D. LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
On its 21st birthday, this new issue of the South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN) celebrates the 21st volume of the SAJCN, which is now published by Medpharm. The change in publishers is the outcome of discussions within the Management and Editorial Board of the SAJCN and aims to improve the service the SAJCN provides to nutrition professionals in South Africa, the rest of the African continent as well as worldwide.
Author John M. PettiforSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 5 –6 (2008)More Less
In the current issue of the Journal, Maseta el al report on the influence of the Tanzanian Child Survival, Protection and Development programme (CSPD) on the nutritional status of children less than three years of age and childcare practices in two wards in the Morogoro Municipality, one of which had been exposed to the programme for a prolonged period (nine years) and the other for a short period (one year).
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 8 –14 (2008)More Less
Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine nutrition and progress toward eliminating iodine deficiency internationally and in South Africa are reviewed in this paper. Voluntary salt iodisation in the country at 10-20 ppm introduced in 1954 failed to eliminate endemic goitre and iodine deficiency. In contrast, considerable progress has been achieved in South Africa in eliminating iodine deficiency by introducing mandatory iodisation of table salt at 40-60 ppm in 1995. A 199 survey showed that optimal iodine nutrition was achieved nationally and in seven of the nine provinces, with more than adequate iodine intake in two provinces. At that time, 6.4% of households used iodised salt and 62.4% used adequately iodised salt that contained more than 15 ppm of iodine, with low coverage rates (< 50%) in the three northern provinces (Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North West). Closer collaboration between the South African Iodine Deficiency Disorders Network and the salt industry resulted in improved accuracy of salt iodisation. Knowledge of iodine nutrition amongst adults is low, particularly in low socioeconomic households, leading to the vulnerability of these groups to obtain non-iodised salt for cooking via unconventional sources. In South Africa a sound scientific data base should be used to maintain the strengths of the national salt iodisation programme and improve on any aspects of the programme in need of attention.
Childcare practices and nutritional status of children aged 6-36 months among short- and long-term beneficiaries of the Child Survival Protection and Development Programmes (the case of Morogoro, Tanzania) : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 16 –20 (2008)More Less
A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out to compare childcare practices and nutritional status of children aged 6-36 months in Mwembesongo and Mjimpya wards that had long and short experiences respectively with the Child Survival, Protection and Development (CSPD) programme. The purpose of the study was to establish whether the long-term implementation of the CSPD programme had an impact compared to that of a short-term programme. The findings showed that the children from Mwembesongo were exclusively breast-fed for a significantly longer period (50 days) than those in the Mjimpya ward (32 days) and that significantly more mothers (95.7%) in Mwembesongo than in Mjimpya (84.5%) attended growth monitoring programmes. On the other hand, significantly more mothers in Mjimpya (71.5%) compared to those in Mwembesongo (51.8%) breast-fed immediately (less than one hour) after birth. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in children's nutritional status (wasting and underweight) between the two wards, except for stunting. More children in Mwembesongo (39.7%) than in Mjimpya (27.5%) were stunted. The findings have demonstrated that financial capacity to support children's food and care requirements forms a springboard from which to launch additional efforts for improved nutritional status.
Will fortification of staple foods make a difference to the dietary intake of South African children? : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 22 –26 (2008)More Less
Objectives: To evaluate the estimated dietary intake of children at population level who consume fortified staple foods.
Methods: In this study, a secondary data analysis of the database of the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS; 1999) on dietary data of a nationally representative sample of children (n = 2 200) in South Africa was performed. Prior to 2003 there was no mandatory fortification of staple foods, with the exception of iodine added to salt. Mandatory fortification of maize and wheat flour was introduced in October 2003. Micronutrient values of fortified wheat and maize food sources were determined by chemical analyses of these foods. These values were then interpolated in the original staple food nutrient analysis determined in the primary analysis of the NFCS database.
Findings: The findings of the present study indicated that the addition of micronutrients to staple foods made a significant difference to the intake of vitamin A, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid and iron. These improvements were particularly important in rural areas where children have the lowest mean dietary micronutrient intake.
Conclusions: Based on the results of the secondary data analysis of the national dietary data together with the chemical analyses of fortified foods, it would appear that fortification of two of the most commonly eaten staple foods in the country will significantly improve the micronutrient intake of children under nine years of age and will improve the overall micronutrient density of their diets. It is recommended that appropriate educational messages on the fortification of staple foods in the country should be utilised to improve children's dietary intake at population level, provided such messages facilitate the consumption of the fortified staples by children.
Growth of infants born to HIV-infected women when fed a biologically acidified starter formula with and without probiotics : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 28 –32 (2008)More Less
Objectives: To compare the growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants fed a biologically acidified milk formula with or without probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis) during the first six months of life, with control infants fed a standard starter formula.
Design: Multi-centre, double-blinded randomised controlled trial.
Setting: Infants born to HIV-infected women delivering at one of three academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Subjects: Consenting HIV-positive women, who had previously decided not to breast-feed, were randomised to receive one of three milk formulas for their newborn infants.
Outcome measures: Comparisons of growth parameters through the first four months of life were made between infants fed the acidified formula without probiotics and those fed the control formula (''acidification effect''), and between infants fed the acidified formulas with and without added probiotics (''probiotic effect'').
Results: Of 131 randomised infants, 33 (25%) did not complete the study and 13 (10%) were HIV infected, leaving 85 infants available for analysis. Infants receiving the acidified formula with probiotics had more rapid head growth (p=0.04) and showed a trend towards more rapid weight gain (p=0.06) over the first four months of life than the infants receiving the acidified formula without probiotics. No other significant differences between the feeding groups were demonstrated.
Conclusions: Infants in all study groups grew well, with increased head growth and a trend towards increased weight gain for those receiving probiotics. There were no differences in morbidity between the three study groups and no evidence of adverse effects of the study formulas.
Consumer testing of the preliminary Paediatric Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (PFBDG) among mothers with infants younger than 6 months in selected urban and rural areas in the Western Cape : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 34 –38 (2008)More Less
Aim: To determine the comprehensibility of the preliminary paediatric food-based dietary guidelines (PFBDG) for infants younger than 6 months in South Africa.
Methods: This qualitative study used focus group discussions held in the Western Cape to evaluate the comprehensibility and the understandability of the preliminary PFBDG. Groups were convened according to area of residence (rural, urban formal and urban informal) and ethnicity (white, coloured and black) to reflect the Western Cape population. Focus group discussions were conducted in the participant's home language, namely Afrikaans, English or Xhosa. The purposive sample included 89 women with infants younger than 6 months divided in 20 groups .
Results: In general, mothers understood the guidelines and could reportedly implement them, but constraints such as having to go back to work, being tired and not having enough breast-milk were volunteered. There were very few problems regarding the PFBDG terminology except with the word 'regularly' in the context of the oral hygiene guideline. With regard to the breast-feeding guideline there was some confusion over whether other foods could be included while breast-feeding. Suggestions were made to include 'only' in the breast-feeding guideline. Some of the participants did not know anything about cleaning the infant's mouth, and suggested it be changed to the overall hygiene of the infant.
Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that it may be possible to use one set of dietary guidelines for infants younger than 6 months for all ethnic groups living in the Western Cape, provided that these guidelines are accompanied by supportive documentation citing examples and reasons for the implementation of the guidelines. Recommendations were made for the PFBDG Work Group to revise the preliminary PFBDG for infants younger than 6 months for implementation and further action.
How can we measure the 'HIV / AIDS effect' on household food security? Piloting an experiential indicator in Nkandla, KwaZulu-Natal : letter to the editorAuthor Kaschula, S,ASource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 41 –42 (2008)More Less
Author Arina PrinsSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 42 –43 (2008)More Less
Consumption of traditional beer in a rural South African population : its effect on iron status : letters to the editorAuthor C. IsaacsonSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less