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- Volume 21, Issue 3, 2008
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 21, Issue 3, 2008
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 3, 2008
Author D. LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
The third 2008 SAJCN issue coincides with the Nutrition Congress on "Evidence Based Nutrition: Leading the way in innovation", 28th September - 2nd October at the University of Pretoria. Apart from the usual content of the issue in terms of, among other features, original communications, two supplements accompany the current issue. The first supplement contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations at the Congress, and, the second supplement, the Executive Summary of the National Food Consumption Survey: Fortification Baseline-I (NFCS: FB-I). I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many people (reviewers, publishers and sponsors) who made the timely, and larger than usual, publication of the SAJCN possible.
Author Peter A. CooperSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 101 –102 (2008)More Less
In the current issue of the Journal, Smuts et al report the results of a study of the socio-demographic profiles and anthropometric status of pre-school children in four rural districts, two in the Eastern Cape (EC) and two in Kwazulu-Natal (KZN). Although data were collected on 1000 children in each district up to the age of 71 months, only data of children up to the age of 59 months (under the age of five years) are reported. The study was carried out in 2003 as a baseline situation assessment prior to the introduction of an intervention programme.
Cocoa and chocolate consumption - are there aphrodisiac and other benefits for human health? : invited reviewAuthor E.O. AfoakwaSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 107 –113 (2008)More Less
Cocoa and chocolate have been acclaimed for several years for their possible medicinal and health benefits. It is only recently, however, that some of these claims have been more clearly identified and studied. Recent epidemiological and clinical studies, for example, have shown that dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate may exert a protective effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, which has been associated with a reduced risk of developing atherosclerosis. Some of the identified benefits of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate include antioxidant properties, reduced blood pressure via the induction of nitric-oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in men, improved endothelial function, increased insulin sensitivity, decreased platelet activation and function, as well as modulated immune function and inflammation. Furthermore, chocolate has been reported to release phenylethylamine and serotonin into the human system, producing some aphrodisiac and mood-lifting effects. Since these claims could have implications for the consumption levels of cocoa and chocolate products on the global market, understanding the critical factors involved and their potential benefits are currently thought to be of great importance to consumers.
Socio-demographic profiles and anthropometric status of 0- to 71-month-old children and their caregivers in rural districts of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 117 –124 (2008)More Less
Objectives: To determine the nutritional status of 0- to 71-month-old children and their caregivers, as well as their socio-demographics, in two provinces in South Africa.
Design: Cross-sectional baseline survey.
Setting: OR Tambo and Alfred Nzo districts in the Eastern Cape (EC), and Umkhanyakude and Zululand (Nongoma and Pongola subdistricts) in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa.
Subjects: 0- to 71-month-old children and their caregivers (EC 1 794; KZN 1 988).
Methods: Questionnaire and anthropometric survey.
Results: The prevalence of childhood malnutrition doubled from the first to second year of life and reached high levels in the EC and Nongoma (KZN). Many caregivers were either overweight or obese (EC 55%; KZN 45%). Initiation of breast-feeding was universal. For infants younger than six months, more than 80% were breast-feeding, and 50% received bottle feeds in addition to breast milk in the EC. Breast-feeding was similar in the two provinces up to the age of 18 months, but differed for 18- to 24-month-old children (EC 50%; KZN 33%). Animal products and yellow / orange-fleshed vegetables were not consumed regularly by children aged two to five years. Immunisation coverage up until 10 weeks was approximately 90%; measles immunisation coverage at 18 months was 40 to 43%. Toilet facilities (31 to 96%), tap water (9 to 38%), electricity (8 to 51%), single mothers (29 to 68%) and unemployed husbands (19 to 55%) varied among provinces. Many households relied on grants for income. In Umkhanyakude, 37% of the caregivers had no formal education.
Conclusions: Childhood malnutrition and maternal overweight / obesity co-existed. A large proportion of the study population did not have access to basic services. Differences were observed within and between provinces. Nutrition programmes should be flexible, taking into consideration local conditions.
The development of a preliminary regression equation for estimating the weight of black South African paraplegic males using anthropometric measurements in Tshwane, South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 127 –131 (2008)More Less
Objective: To develop a regression equation to estimate the weight of black male paraplegic South African subjects.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Outpatient paraplegic clinic of Kalafong Hospital, Tshwane, South Africa.
Subjects: Subjects (n = 43) were selected from a population of black paraplegic males attending the clinic.
Outcome measures: The following measurements were obtained in triplicate from the consenting subjects: weight, waist, calf, chest and neck circumference, mid upper-arm circumference (MUAC), supine length, upper-arm length and wrist circumference. The age of the subject, time elapsed since injury, level of injury and level of spasticity were recorded.
Results: Body weight correlated significantly with waist, calf, chest and neck circumference and MUAC with respective Pearson correlation coefficient values (R) of 0.85 or higher and significant levels (p-values) of p < 0.0001. A regression equation to estimate weight was chosen on the basis of strength and practicality and included the following variables: circumferences of the calf, chest, and neck as well as the supine length. The regression equation was significant (p < 0.0001).
Conclusion: A regression equation was developed which could be used, when further validated, to estimate the weight of black South African paraplegic males.
Construction of a valid and reliable test to determine knowledge on dietary fat of higher-educated young adults : original researchAuthor I. VenterSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 133 –139 (2008)More Less
Objective: The construction of a questionnaire, in the format of a test, to determine knowledge on dietary fat of higher-educated young adults.
Design: The topics on dietary fat included were in accordance with those tested in other studies. Forty multiple-choice items were drafted as questions and incomplete statements following the item construction rules. The items were reviewed by nutrition and food science professionals for content- and face-related evidence (n = 4 respectively) and by students representing the study population for face-related evidence (n = 16) of validity. Twenty items were removed as the panel questioned their relevance and replaced with 17 items reviewed by them. The items now largely focused on food sources of fat. These 37 items formed the preliminary test that was administered to two groups of higher-education students expected to differ in nutrition knowledge level. The completed and scored items were statistically analysed to determine which items could be retained for the test. Items meeting the item analysis criteria formed the test. The Mann-Whitney statistic was used to determine the construct-related evidence of validity and the Kuder-Richardson (K-R) 20 formula for the reliability of the test.
Results: The 37-item preliminary test was completed by 99 and 87 students respectively forming the knowledgeable and less knowledgeable groups. Eighteen items remained after the statistical item analysis. Eight items did not meet the difficulty and discrimination index criteria respectively, nine the item-to-total correlation criteria and 13 the answer distribution criteria. The 18-item test was found to be reliable (K-R20 = 0.8997), as well as valid, since a significant difference (p < 0.001) in knowledge was found between the groups in the expected direction.
Conclusion: The test can be used to compare the knowledge scores of groups and of individuals as it met the reliability coefficient of 0.75 and 0.85 respectively to make such score decisions.
Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific children's multi-nutrient supplements in the Gauteng Province (South Africa) : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 141 –146 (2008)More Less
Background: Faced with an extensive array of various children's multi-nutrient supplements, all with their 'unique' properties and formulation, mothers are expected to select one that best meets their children's needs. Little research has been done to identify the factors women use to select a particular multi-nutrient supplement for their children.
Aim: To establish which factors influence women's decisions most often when selecting children's multi-nutrient supplements, what choice tactics are used in the decision-making process, and into what groups women can be classified according to the factors used to select specific brands.
Setting: A point-of-purchase survey was conducted among 128 women who were interviewed in large discount pharmacies once they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it.
Results: Women who purchased multi-nutrient supplements for their children were mostly working, white women, between the ages of 34 to 49 years, and were in general educated and affluent. Subjects were influenced by 12 factors [form (91%), nutrient content (80%), child's preference (69%), packaging (50%), price (39%), health benefits (38%), advice from others (38%), free from certain ingredients (28%), organic or natural properties (21%), herbal content (18%), advertisements (14%), and promotions (14%)]. Form had the greatest influence on the decision to purchase. Forms that were most popular were chewable tablets (50%) and liquid / syrups (35%). Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most often used as choice tactics. Women were classified into four groups (quality shopper / information gatherer, bargain shopper, convenience shopper and child-sensitive shopper).
Conclusion: Many women spend time and effort gathering information about children's multi-nutrient supplements. However, less appropriate factors are often considered in decision making and labels are not interpreted correctly. To show competence in the field of prescribing children's dietary supplements, dieticians ought to be aware of the supplement choices available and determine which factors play a role in a client's decision to purchase a particular brand, e.g. free from certain ingredients, and what form their children would prefer, e.g. syrup. Once this has been determined, and after having assessed the child's usual dietary intake, the dietician can identify the most appropriate dietary supplement in a particular supplement-delivery category.
Author Duduzile MthuliSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
The ADSA core executive committee who are the portfolio holders meet twice per year as dictated by the constitution. At the second meeting branch chairpersons join the core executive committee to form the extended executive committee. The meetings take one full day which is normally longer than eight hours and a half day which ends at 1 pm. Each portfolio holder reports on the actives taken since the previous meeting including successes and challenges experienced. Branch chairpersons report on the branch activities undertaken during the year since the previous meeting. It is praiseworthy to mention that almost all dieticians in different regions participate actively in continued education activities.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
At the 21st Biennial General Meeting of NSSA held in Port Elizabeth, 2006, Council proposed that a new logo should be developed for the Society. It was agreed that there was a need for a more modern design to communicate the aims and objectives of the Society to the nutrition and science fraternity. Members responded positively to the proforma designs which were shown and Council proceeded with the development of a new logo. In December 2007 NSSA members were given the opportunity to vote for one of two examples of the new logo, or as an alternative continue with the old logo. The majority of those who voted chose the logo shown below. This logo has been accepted as the official logo of NSSA and will now also appear in the South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition.