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- Volume 21, Issue 4, 2008
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 21, Issue 4, 2008
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Volume 21, Issue 4, 2008
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 304 –305 (2008)More Less
In this issue of the SAJCN, Malhotra et al report on determinants of obesity in an urban township. This is a welcome addition to the current pool of knowledge as there is paucity of data on obesity in African townships, although there is a fair amount of literature on obesity in developing countries. Firstly, the findings indicate that some 52% of men and 80% of women had a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2. Secondly, their findings indicate that female gender and being married were associated with a high BMI and large waist circumference. Additionally, recent migration was associated with a smaller waist circumference. Interestingly, the level of physical activity was not associated with BMI or waist circumference.
Characteristics of the South African Food Composition Database, an essential tool for the nutrition fraternity in the country : part I : invited reviewSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 308 –313 (2008)More Less
Information on the nutrient composition of food forms the foundation for determining the diet-health-disease-relationships in a country. The nutrient composition of foods is influenced by many factors such as climate, soil, cultivar / breed, the grade of ripeness at harvest and the storage of food. Therefore, it is especially important to have a country-specific food composition database that caters for the dietary habits of all the country's people. Different methodologies are used for generating information on the nutrient composition of foods, e.g. chemical analyses, calculations, imputations, information from other food composition databases and the scientific literature. Knowledge of the characteristics and limitations of food composition data is a prerequisite for the responsible use and application of the information on the nutrient composition of foods. A food composition database is an essential tool used by the nutrition fraternity in an effort to improve the dietary habits, and thus the health, of the population.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 315 –320 (2008)More Less
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and identify factors associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among adults residing in an urban township in South Africa.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Khayelitsha, a large black township located in Cape Town.
Subjects: 107 males and 530 females, aged ≥ 18 years.
Methods: The prevalence of overweight / obesity (BMI3 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women), and their relationship with factors previously found to increase the risk of obesity, such as age, gender, marital status, educational level, employment status, immigrant status from rural to urban, and physical activity level, were assessed using logistic regression analyses.
Results: The prevalence of obesity (BMI3 30 kg/m2) was 53.4% and 18.7%, and that of abdominal obesity was 71.5% and 23.4%, among women and men respectively. However, more women (21.3%) than men (11.2%) reported walking more than 45 minutes per day. Female gender and being married were associated with a high BMI and large WC. Recent migration was associated with a smaller WC. The level of physical activity was not associated with BMI or WC.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that physical activity may play less of a role in obesity control, or that more than 45 minutes of physical activity per day is required to reduce the risk of obesity, especially in women. At least among South African women, obesity control focused on nutritional interventions may be more beneficial than increasing the intensity or duration of physical activity.
Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and consumption of health food store customers in the Cape Town city bowl : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 323 –330 (2008)More Less
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics of customers visiting health food stores in the Cape Town city bowl, and to determine their awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intake servings and their fruit and vegetable consumption.
Design and setting: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by customers visiting two health food stores in the Cape Town city bowl.
Subjects: Participants were recruited systematically. One hundred and sixteen of the 146 invited customers participated in the survey (79.5%), but the sample consisted of 112 because four questionnaires were not completed fully.
Results: The majority of the sample (81.3%) used supplements, and 79.1% of these were regular users. The demographics of the sample and of the supplement users were mainly female and white, with a higher education, and a younger age. Vitamin (63.2%), mineral (42.5%) and herbal (42.5%) supplements were consumed most. The two main reasons for use were to supplement the diet (68.1%) and to prevent disease (59.3%). A third of the sample (33.0%) was aware of the "5-a-day" concept, while only 21.4% understood the concept. Knowledge of the recommended daily fruit (92.0%) and vegetable (47.3%) intake servings was higher than the awareness of the "5-a-day" concept, although only 65.2% and 14.3% of the respondents consumed the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables respectively.
Conclusions: The demographic profile of the supplement users was similar to that reported in other studies. Knowledge of the recommended daily fruit and vegetable intake servings was higher than the consumption behaviour, as fewer servings were consumed than were indicated should be consumed, especially regarding vegetable intake. More respondents who were aware of the "5-a-day" concept were consuming the recommended intake of five fruit and vegetables servings daily.
The prevalence of anaemia and selected micronutrient status in pregnant teenagers of Polokwane Municipality in the Limpopo Province : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 332 –336 (2008)More Less
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the iron, folate and vitamin B12 status of pregnant teenagers in the Limpopo Province.
Design: This is a descriptive study with analytical components.
Methods: Pregnant teenagers aged between 12 and 21 years were recruited from Mankweng, Dikgale, Makotopong and Kganya clinics in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Dietary data and blood were collected for the analysis of iron, folate and vitamin B12 status.
Outcome measures: Blood was collected for the analysis of iron, folate and vitamin B12 status. Dietary data were collected using a repeated 24-hour recall questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire, and demographic data were also collected using a standard questionnaire.
Results: The mean and standard deviation for iron, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin C were 6.5 mg ± 3.3, 155.3 μg ± 92.7, 2.3 μg ± 2.8 and 31.2 mg ± 36.2 respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was high (36%), with iron deficiency anaemia being the most prevalent (57%) as compared to either folate (9%) or vitamin B12 (7%) deficiency anaemia. There was a significant difference (p = 0.03) in serum folate between teenagers who were receiving folic acid supplements and those who were not receiving any such supplements.
Conclusions: More than a third of the teenagers were anaemic and this is considered to be high. These teenagers need nutrition education so that they will be able to choose nutritious food, especially at a critical stage such as pregnancy.
Author Lesley BourneSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
The Western Cape Branch of the Nutrition Society of South Africa (NSSA) in partnership with the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) hosted a one-day Symposium on Nutrition and HIV / AIDS on 4th September 2008. This Symposium was held at the MRC Conference Centre in Parow, Cape Town and brought together scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, policy planners, students and other key role players. The overall aim was to forge dialogue aimed at advancing knowledge about the role of nutrition in AIDS-related disease progression and health promotion. Additionally, in the light of these updates, research questions were explored. The symposium was a huge success and received a good response with more than 60 delegates from academia, industry and the private sector.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21 (2008)More Less
The 22nd Biennial Nutrition Congress was especially significant as the university celebrates its centenary this year with the theme "A Century in the Service of Knowledge". Hence, it was most apt to host this congress where one of the main aims was to share new knowledge in the fields of nutrition and dietetics.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, pp 343 –347 (2008)More Less