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- Volume 22, Issue 4, 2009
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 22, Issue 4, 2009
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 4, 2009
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22 (2009)More Less
The last 2009 issue of SAJCN bids farewell to the outgoing year with some interesting and thought provoking concepts outlined in the invited review by Thomas T Samaras. The theme of the review is in line with the known and long debated question ''is more better'' except the question, which will no doubt will continue to be debated, is ''is bigger better'' or ''does human body size matter''?.
Author Loots Du ToitSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22, pp 169 –170 (2009)More Less
In the current issue of the Journal, Louwrens and co-workers determine the per capita South African daily dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using published data by Nel and Steyn (2002) which summarises the food consumption studies conducted in SA from 1983-2000. The data reflect the daily per capita intake of food and beverages as based on those foods and beverages consumed by more than 3% of South African adults of all ages and ethnic groups.
Author T.T. SamarasSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22, pp 171 –176 (2009)More Less
Findings supporting the counter-intuitive thesis that smaller body size promotes greater health and longevity are reviewed. In addition, the risks of promoting further growth through genetic manipulation are explored in relation to chronic disease and longevity. Supporting examples from animal research are also covered. The biological mechanisms that relate to height and longevity conclude the review.
Development and testing of recipes suitable for patients with chronic renal failure : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22, pp 177 –184 (2009)More Less
Objectives: The main objectives of the study were to develop and test recipes that meet the nutritional requirements of and are acceptable to patients with chronic renal failure. The secondary objectives were to determine gender and racial differences in the participants' responses during consumer sensory testing.
Design: This was a descriptive study with an analytical component.
Materials and methods: Patients on haemodialysis (n = 42) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (n = 3) from Tygerberg Academic Hospital were included. Data were collected in three phases with census sampling: 1) the development and adaptation of recipes; 2) sensory testing with the nine-point hedonic scale; and 3) the rating of recipes, final nutritional analysis and the allocation of renal exchanges.
Results: Recipes were developed and adapted to suit the needs of the target population. Forty-five patients took part in the sensory evaluation (acceptance, appearance, smell, texture and taste) of 30 recipes. Twenty-three recipes were deemed acceptable (> 80% of the participants scored ≥ 6 out of 9). Significant differences were found between the male and female subgroups for Fish and Vegetable Pie (p = 0.031), Chicken Pilaf (p = 0.008) and Date Fingers (p = 0.002) and between the black and Westernised subgroups for Rice Salad (p = 0.006), Wheat and Mushroom Casserole (p = 0.022), Curried Wheat Salad (p = 0.043) and Coconut Ice (p = 0.005). The 23 recipes were nutritionally analysed and renal exchanges were allocated.
Conclusion: The 23 recipes that were acceptable to the study participants are recommended for inclusion in the RenalSmart software program. The recipes are suitable for patients following a Westernised diet.
Evaluation of community-based growth monitoring in rural districts of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22, pp 185 –194 (2009)More Less
Background: The Health Systems Trust implemented a community-based growth monitoring intervention project that fits into the Integrated Nutrition Programme focus areas and commissioned an evaluation of this project.
Objective: To assess project volunteers' knowledge on infant and young child nutrition and growth monitoring, and evaluate community-based growth monitoring activities.
Design: Five randomly selected growth monitoring sites per sub-district were evaluated. Project volunteers (n = 45) and caregivers (n = 186) attending the growth monitoring sites were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. Growth monitoring and nutrition education activities were observed at the growth monitoring sites.
Setting: Two rural districts in KwaZulu-Natal (Umkhanyakude: sub-district Jozini; and Zululand: sub-district Phongola), and one rural district in the Eastern Cape (OR Tambo), South Africa.
Results: Project volunteers were mostly women (87%), 38 ± 10 years old, and 27% had matric / Grade 12. There was a high turnover of project volunteers. Their nutrition knowledge varied. Forty-six per cent of the project volunteers and 39% of the caregivers could correctly identify the growth curve of a healthy growing child. Seven of the 13 sites that were visited were at a crèche. There was a referral system between the growth monitoring site and the local clinic, and links with the Department of Agriculture and, to a lesser extent, the Department of Social Welfare. Weighing methods were inconsistent and the steps of growth monitoring were not followed through. Nutrition education to the caregivers was lacking at several of the sites.
Conclusion: The study highlighted both strengths and limitations of the project. Areas that need improvement include the selection, training and supervision of project volunteers performing community-based growth monitoring.
South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary intake data in relation to dietary recommendations : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22, pp 195 –202 (2009)More Less
Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations.
Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by the Department of Health that summarises food consumption studies conducted in South Africa between 1983 and 2000. This estimated adult South African dietary TAC was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations incorporating the five-a-day concept and the basic food groups and beverages (tea and coffee).
Results: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated as 11 433 micromoles (μmoles) Trolox equivalents (TE)/person/day, with beverages (tea) being the main contributor (38.5%). The dietary TAC based on the recommended five-a-day concept and other dietary intake recommendations was 20 513 μmoles TE/person/day, with beverages again being the main contributor (47.8%).
Conclusions: Compared to the TAC of the five-a-day concept and other dietary intake recommendations, the South African population consumes about half of this estimated TAC per day. It is especially in the vegetable group and beverages where actual consumption is well below the coupled TAC. Grains are the only food group where consumption is above the coupled TAC. The five-a-day concept is only the aim for minimum intake and not the ultimate goal. An increase in these foods, along with beverages (tea) and whole grains to the recommended servings, can uphold the dietary TAC and health benefits.
Socio-demographic risk factors for HIV infection in women living in Mangaung, Free State : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 22, pp 203 –207 (2009)More Less
Objective : To determine socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in women in Mangaung.
Design and setting: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mangaung, Bloemfontein.
Subjects and methods: A representative group of 500 black women (25-44 years) was randomly selected to participate. Socio-demographic data were determined with a structured questionnaire and compared between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.
Results: After screening for eligibility, 488 women qualified. Sixty-one per cent of the younger women (25-34 years) and 38% of the older women (35-44 years) were HIV infected. It is possible that healthy women would be more likely to be working and were not included. HIV-infected women had been living significantly longer in urban areas (p = 0.0001 for both age groups) than HIV-uninfected women. Significantly more HIV-infected younger women than their HIV-uninfected counterparts snuffed tobacco (p = 0.002). Significantly more HIV-uninfected older women than HIV-infected older women were married or traditionally married (p = 0.010). Significantly more HIV-uninfected (p = 0.012 for younger and p = 0.002 for older) women than HIV-infected women reported a husband-headed household. Significantly more of the HIV-uninfected older women (p = 0.018) than the HIV-infected older women had no formal schooling or only primary school education. Unemployment ranged between 64.7 and 78.3%. Median room density between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women did not differ significantly.
Conclusions: Unemployment and low levels of education were commonly reported. A self-headed household, urbanisation and being unmarried appeared to be possible risk factors for HIV infection.