- A-Z Publications
- South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Previous Issues
- Volume 23, Issue 2, 2010
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 23, Issue 2, 2010
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 2, 2010
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less
The state of research in Africa has been the subject of intense debate from time to time in many and different forums. The forthcoming National Scholarly Editors' Forum (NSEF) meeting scheduled for Wednesday, July 28 2010 in Johannesburg is a welcome initiative of the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) to strengthen on-going efforts to improve African research and outputs. The meeting aims to "provide an exciting time and opportunity for Scholarly Journal Editors to exchange information and knowledge in our field, but also an exceptional occasion to meet not only our disciplinary peers, but other experts who share the same interests. The programme is designed to allow Editors to engage in discussions around these proposed items during the final session, and also to table points during the discussions".
Author Nelia SteynSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 62 –63 (2010)More Less
In order to develop a true understanding of adolescents' eating behaviour and food choices it is necessary to briefly consider such behaviour from an ecological perspective. Four levels of influence impact on the nutritional health of teens. Firstly, individual or intrapersonal factors such as the psycho-social and biological factors immediately drive behaviour. Secondly, the social environment (or interpersonal factors) in which the adolescent lives, in terms of peers and family members, plays a strong role. Thirdly, one needs to place the adolescent in the perspective of his / her community and environment in terms of influences impacting on nutrition-related behaviour. Outside influences such as availability and access to fast food outlets, school tuckshops, food stores and vendors in the vicinity may play a role in his / her decision making. Lastly the macroenvironment needs to be understood in terms of the society in which the adolescent finds himself / herself. The latter influences include effects of mass media and advertising.
Dietary assessment methodology for adolescents : a review of reproducibility and validation studies : review articleSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 65 –74 (2010)More Less
Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the validity and / or reproducibility of dietary assessment methods used to assess food and nutrient intakes of adolescents.
Method: A detailed literature search was undertaken to trace articles reporting on the validity and/or reproducibility of food records, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls for the dietary assessment of adolescents, especially among South Africans, in the following databases: Medline, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, Health Source, PubMed and the South African e-publications database (SAE). Original studies published between 1990 and 2009, and relevant original articles published before 1990, were included. Of these, only three were South African-based studies reporting testing for reproducibility and/or validity.
Results: Results indicated that adolescents comply better with estimated food records than with weighed food records. However, energy intake was underestimated in adolescents (by 18-42%) when using food record methods. The relative validity of FFQs among adolescents was moderate, with correlation coefficients of > 0.3 for most measured nutrients and food items. Reproducibility was fair to good among female adolescents (0.3-0.83) for most nutrients and foods, but was lower in a South African Tswana-speaking group. The 24-hour recall method showed the least over- and underestimation of all the reviewed methods. When comparing the 24-hour recall method to an observed intake method among adolescents, < 11% underestimation of energy intake was found, while < 4% underestimation was found when the 24-hour recall method was tested against the doubly labelled water method.
Conclusion: Based on these outcomes it was concluded that FFQs and 24-hour recalls are valid and reproducible dietary assessment methods that can be used when collecting dietary data from adolescents. Factors to consider when choosing the best suitable method should include the gender and ethnicity of the population as well as the time frame for the collection of dietary data.
Dietary fat knowledge and intake of mid-adolescents attending public schools in the Bellville / Durbanville area of the city of Cape Town : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 75 –83 (2010)More Less
Objectives: This survey primarily investigated the dietary fat knowledge and intake of 17-year-olds.
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey.
Setting and subjects: A random sample of 168 learners (89% response rate) attending public schools in the Bellville / Durbanville area participated with parental consent after the area manager of the Department of Education and the school headmasters granted approval to conduct the survey.
Outcome measures: Both the test and the food frequency screener selected to assess learner dietary fat knowledge and intake respectively was pilot tested.
Results: The learners mostly obtained average (46%) as well as below average (52%) dietary fat knowledge scores and mostly (61%) followed diets that were categorised as typically Western, quite high in fat. The learners' interest in nutrition and their source of nutritional information, which was a subject presented at school, were positively associated with their dietary fat knowledge (p < 0.05) and intake (p < 0.05) and their dietary fat knowledge was positively associated with their fat intake (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: These mid-adolescents lack knowledge of dietary fat and are not consuming fats sparingly. However, their interest in nutrition, reliable nutritional information and dietary fat knowledge positively affected their fat intake. Interest in nutrition through nutrition and health education intervention initiatives should be cultivated among adolescents as it was identified as positively affecting both the dietary fat knowledge and intake of these adolescents.
Accuracy of reporting food energy intake : influence of ethnicity and body weight status in South African women : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 84 –89 (2010)More Less
The current study sought to identify characteristics that may be associated with the misreporting of food energy intake (EI) in urban South African women. A total of 198 women (61 black, 76 of mixed ancestry, 61 white) completed a quantified food frequency questionnaire, from which daily energy and macronutrient intake were calculated. Body composition (body mass index [BMI], percentage of body fat), body image (Feel-Ideal Difference index and Body Shape questions) and socio-economic status (SES) (household density and asset index) were also measured. Food EI in relation to estimated basal metabolic rate ratio that was less than 1.05 represented under-reporting, whereas a ratio greater than 2.28 represented over-reporting. Results suggested that 26% of the participants under-reported, 64% adequately reported and 10% over-reported. Participants who under-reported had a higher BMI (p < 0.01) and higher percentage of body fat (p < 0.05) than those who adequately and over-reported. The majority of under-reporters were black (38%) versus 21% under-reporters of mixed ancestry and 20% white under-reporters (p < 0.01). Eighty-three per cent of black under-reporters were obese. On the other hand, a majority (63%) of overweight women of mixed ancestry and a majority (50%) of white normal-weight women under-reported their food EI. Under-reporters reported a lower intake of dietary fat (p < 0.01) and a higher intake of dietary protein (p < 0.01) than adequate or over-reporters. Food EI reporting was not influenced by SES or body image. In conclusion, results suggest that food EI reporting is influenced by body size, and may be ethnic-specific in South African women.
Growth of infants born to HIV-positive mothers fed a whey-adapted acidified starter formula with prebiotics and nucleotides : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 90 –95 (2010)More Less
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether infants born to known HIV-positive mothers, but who were not themselves infected with HIV and who were fed a chemically acidified starter formula with prebiotics with or without nucleotides during their first six months, displayed growth rates equal to uninfected infants fed a chemically acidified starter formula without prebiotics or nucleotides.
Design: The design was a multi-centre, double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Setting: The study was carried out in four academic hospitals, three in Johannesburg and one in Cape Town, South Africa.
Subjects and intervention: The subjects were newborn infants born to consenting HIV-positive women who had previously decided not to breast feed. The infants were randomised to receive one of three milk formulas. The intervention comprised chemically acidified formula without prebiotics or nucleotides, with prebiotics only, or with prebiotics and nucleotides.
Outcome measures: The outcome measures were the growth parameters through the first six months of life.
Results: Of the 150 randomised infants, 50 did not complete the study and 16 (12.8% of those tested) were infected with HIV, leaving 84 infants available for analysis. All three formulas were tolerated well, with no differences in growth parameters seen with the addition of prebiotics and nucleotides. The growth rates of the study infants up to the age of six months were very good, showing an increase in Z-scores from negative values at the time of enrolment in the first week after birth to around zero for length and > 0.5 for weight.
Conclusions: The three chemically acidified formulas were tolerated well and resulted in good growth over the first six months of life. No benefits were seen with the addition of prebiotics or nucleotides. The growth rates were similar to those found in previous studies of ours on biologically acidified formulas. The chemical acidification of infant formulas appears to be a realistic alternative to biological acidification should an acidified formula be required.
Author Christine TaljaardSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less