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- Volume 23, Issue 3, 2010
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 23, Issue 3, 2010
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Volume 23, Issue 3, 2010
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less
The debate on the extent to which the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) will be met globally has been intense over the recent years and has intensified further in the wake of the potentially devastating effects of the current world economic recession as well the implications of the so-called climate change. With the MDG target date of 2015 round the corner, the United Nations Secretary-General has invited world leaders to a summit in New York (20-22 September 2010) with a view to assessing the MDG's current status and mapping the way forward for accelerated progress to achieve the MDGs. Mr Sieraag De Klerk and Prof John Kahimbaara from Statistics South Africa provided the following summary on South Africa's 2010 report, which is currently being prepared, on the MDGs.
Author E.M.W. MaunderSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 115 –116 (2010)More Less
The paucity of data on fast food intake by South Africans makes the article on the fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa very useful. This study is especially important in the context of global concerns regarding the quality of diet, the epidemiological transition and the epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases.
Author A. LavianoSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 118 –122 (2010)More Less
The clinical journey of chronic diseases, including cancer, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is frequently characterised by the progressive deterioration of nutritional status, leading to increased morbidity and mortality, and impinges upon quality of life. Disease-associated malnutrition is characterised by anorexia and reduced food intake, but nutritional depletion cannot be accounted for by insufficient energy intake only. Indeed, wasting of muscles and adipose tissue also occurs, which is not suppressed by the provision of nutrients. Disease-associated malnutrition is defined as the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, to differentiate this clinical condition from malnutrition resulting from simple starvation, which responds to nutritional support. The pathogenesis of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome is multifactorial, but moderate yet persistent inflammation plays a prominent role in mediating the observed changes of eating behavior and of the metabolism of peripheral tissues. Peripheral tissue wasting and disease-associated anorexia have been classically considered as involving different molecular pathways, the former being mediated by increased muscle proteolysis and adipose tissue lipolysis, the latter being induced by neurochemical alterations. However, recent data seem to support the concept that disease-associated anorexia and wasting represent the clinical phenotypes of common pathogenic mechanisms, involving brain areas controlling energy homeostasis. In this regard, the different clinical pictures of disease-associated malnutrition, characterised by a variety of combinations of anorexia and wasting, reflect the different interactions occurring between the genotypes of the host and the underlying disease. Therefore, it has been proposed that the anorexia-cachexia syndrome is better defined as cachexia, which now encompasses the countless clinical expressions of the host's response to a chronic insult. Surprisingly, such a unifying concept was already left by Michelangelo as a hidden message on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 500 years ago.
Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 124 –130 (2010)More Less
Objectives : To determine fast food consumption patterns, socio-economic characteristics and other factors that influence the fast food intake of young adults from different socio-economic areas in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Methods : A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken, using an interviewer-administered, validated questionnaire to elicit the characteristics of the study population (adults aged from 19 to 30 years), their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.
Results : The study population (n = 341) consisted primarily of young working adults (n = 242) with at least a secondary education. Almost half (42%, n = 102) of the employed participants earned less than R5 000 per month, but spent more than R200 on fast food per month. Twenty-one per cent of all participants had fast food at least once a week, while 27.6% had it two to three times a week. Socio-economic group (SEG) and gender were significantly related to fast food intake (p < 0.01), with a larger proportion of participants (65%, n = 76) in the lower socio-economic group (LSEG) showing more frequent use. Males consumed fast food more frequently than females. The most popular fast foods consumed were burgers (69.5%), pizza (56.6%) and fried chicken (38.4%). Soft drinks were the most popular beverage consumed (56%). The main reasons for choosing fast food were time limitations (58.9%), convenience (58.2%) and taste (52.5%). The majority of the participants were concerned about their health (93.3%) and indicated a fear of becoming overweight (44.3%). Seventy-eight per cent of all the participants would have chosen a healthier option if it had been available on the menu. Television was reported to be the most effective medium influencing their food choices.
Conclusion : Fast food intake appears to be very common in this group of young South African adults. Various factors that influence fast food intake were identified that provide health educators and policy makers with useful information for health promotion.
Folate deficiency in women of reproductive age in nine administrative regions of Ethiopia : an emerging public health problem : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 132 –137 (2010)More Less
Objective : To investigate the country-wide extent of folate deficiency and risk factors in Ethiopian women.
Design : Cross-sectional study.
Methods : Multistage cluster sampling and systematic sampling were used to select 970 women aged 15 to 49 years from nine accessible regions of Ethiopia. Demographic and health information was collected via questionnaire. Biological samples were collected by medical technologists.
Outcome measures : demographic and health variables, food frequency, haemoglobin status, ferritin status and folate status.
Results : Mean ± SD plasma folate was 5.57 ± 3.84 ng/mL. Forty-six per cent of women had severe folate deficiency (≤ 4 ng/mL) and 21.2% had marginal folate deficiency (> 4-6.6 ng/mL) with unequal prevalence across the country. Severe folate deficiency was higher in women who were unmarried (p = 0.002), had parity of 4-6 (p = 0.001), used oral contraceptives (p = 0.01), had no illnesses (p = 0.001), had intestinal parasites (0.001), followed lower plant food diets (0.001), followed lower animal product diets (0.001), had no anaemia (0.001) and had no iron deficiency (0.001). In logistic regression analysis, only low plant food diets (p = 0.001) and iron deficiency (p < 0.001) retained their significance with regard to folate deficiency. The odds for developing folate deficiency was 0.9 times less likely among those with higher plant food intake (AOR-0.9;95%CI - 0.72-1.2) and 0.2 times less likely among those with adequate iron (AOR-0.2;95%CI - 0.17-0.34).
Conclusions : Folate deficiency is widespread in Ethiopian women, emphasising the need for sustainable folate intake through dietary diversification and appropriate public health measures.
Adverse social, nutrition and health conditions in rural districts of the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape provinces, South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 140 –147 (2010)More Less
Objective : This study determined the socio-demographic, nutritional and health status of children and their caregivers in two rural districts in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and one rural district in the Eastern Cape (EC), South Africa.
Design : A cross-sectional survey was conducted.
Setting : The study population resided in Umkhanyakude (sub-district Jozini) and Zululand (sub-district Pongola) in KZN, and in OR Tambo (sub-district Nyandeni) in the EC province.
Subjects : Children 0 to 59 months old (Umkhanyakude n = 398; Zululand n = 303; OR Tambo n = 364) and their caregivers were included.
Methods : Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted and height and weight were measured.
Results : Households in OR Tambo had less access to services (tap water 3%, toilets 33%), compared to Umkhanyakude (tap water 50%, toilets 82%) and Zululand (tap water 74%, toilets 98%). Wood was the main energy source used to cook food in all three districts (> 75%). Grants were a main source of income (Umkhanyakude and Zululand 61%; OR Tambo 55%). Many households obtained vegetables from their own garden (Umkhanyakude and Zululand 30%; OR Tambo 70%). The households that reportedly had enough food available at all times (Umkhanyakude and Zululand 25%; OR Tambo 17%), were in the minority. The diarrhoea prevalence reported by the caregivers was high (Umkhanyakude 35%; Zululand 24%; OR Tambo 24%). The prevalence of stunting was higher for children older than 12 months and varied between 22 and 26%. The prevalence of overweight among children 0 to 23 months exceeded the prevalence of underweight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among caregivers was high (Umkhanyakude 42%; Zululand 60%; OR Tambo 56%).
Conclusion : Concerted efforts are needed to address the adverse social, nutrition and health conditions in these districts.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 149 –154 (2010)More Less
Objectives : To determine the nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children attending a purposively selected school in rural QwaQwa.
Setting : A purposively selected public school (n = 540) in QwaQwa.
Subjects : A convenience sample of all 142 school pupils, aged from nine to thirteen years.
Outcome measures : The measuring instruments included a nutrition knowledge questionnaire to determine the current nutrition knowledge, and a 24-hour recall to determine food and nutrient intakes. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height, measured using standard methodologies.
Results : The mean age of the respondents was 11.2 years, and all had deficient intakes of all the nutrients, except for protein, carbohydrates and thiamine. However, 53.1%, 17.1% and 14.3% of the respondents did not meet 100% of EAR for protein, carbohydrates and thiamine respectively. The anthropometric results indicated that 2.8% of the total group of respondents was severely stunted, and that 11.3% were stunted. The BMI-for-age indicated that 12.0% were overweight, and more so among the girls (15.7%) than the boys (8.3%). The respondents showed average nutrition knowledge in the majority of the questions.
Conclusions : This study observed malnutrition and average nutrition knowledge, with many gaps relating to aspects, such as the role of the various food groups in the diet and safe hygiene practices.
Author C. MacDougallSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, pp 157 –159 (2010)More Less
The following case study was discussed at the recent SASPEN Congress held at Spier Estate, Stellenbosch, South Africa. The case study was adapted from the original and used with the kind permission of Fresenius Kabi, Germany. Herewith follows a summarised discussion of the case. It is a reflection of the general opinion of the audience.
Announcement : international graduate course on the production and use of food composition data in nutrition : professional newsSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less
Food composition is a fundamental information resource for nutrition science. It is however, not limited to the field of nutrition science and the public health domain. The food industry, trade, export, legislation and consumers all need and/or use data on food composition. Within a developing country perspective, it is directly linked to food security, development and evaluation of dietary guidelines, fortification programs and feeding schemes (such as the South African school feeding program), and the development of guidelines for agricultural practices such as vitamin A rich vegetable gardens and bio-fortification.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less
Nutrition Safari (Section 21 Company) was established in 2001 to organise the 18th International Congress of Nutrition. It represents all the organisations that are members of the South African Adhering body to the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, namely the NSSA, MRC, ADSA, SASPEN, and functions in association with the Nutrition Directorate of the South African Department of Health.
Author Lize BredellSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less
The ADSA Eastern Cape branch committee kicked off 2010 by hosting an informative meeting in Port Elizabeth on Friday 30 April with guest speaker Liesbet Delport RD(SA) from the GI Foundation. Twenty five registered dieticians attended this meeting. The topic was on sport nutrition and GI/GL. Liesbet entertained the delegates by testing the effects of Appletizer and Energade on their blood glucose levels. The delegates received practical guidelines on compiling a diet for someone who participates in sport - whether professional or as a hobby. We would like to thank Arctic Healthcare for bringing Liesbet down to the Eastern Cape Province.
SAJCN CPD activity No 72 and 73 - 2010 : continuing professional development activity for dietitiansSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (2010)More Less