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- Volume 24, Issue 1, 2011
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 24, Issue 1, 2011
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Volume 24, Issue 1, 2011
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24 (2011)More Less
Against the background of intense debate on the prevention of obesity and chronic diseases, the year started with the release, of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. These recommendations "accommodate the food preferences, cultural traditions and customs of the many and diverse groups who live in the United States".
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 7 –8 (2011)More Less
In its different forms, malnutrition is said to be one of the greatest, and at the same time, one of the most preventable obstacles in terms of fulfillment of human potential and health status. It also places a significant burden on individuals, households and the national health system, as well as the entire cultural, social and economic make-up of a nation. Compared to the cost of treating and dealing with the different effects of malnutrition, its prevention is much more economical and also has a positive impact on productivity and economic growth, education, intellectual capacity and social development.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 10 –18 (2011)More Less
Generally, South African researchers working in the fields of nutrition and dietetics collect food intake data as a first step towards determining the nutritional status of various populations. However, on publication, the majority of the results obtained from these studies are expressed in terms of nutrient intake, whereas food intake data are either not included, or are presented in non-uniform formats. Subsequently, other researchers who wish to determine what foods South Africans are eating are not able to access food intake data from existing studies. For example, if the Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG), which are expressly based on food, and not nutrient intakes, are to be revised regularly as stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO), very little additional food intake data from the decade following publication of the first FBDG in 2001 would be available for adult South Africans. It is probable that the consumption of certain foods may have increased because of urbanisation and Westernisation of large sectors of the population. Conversely, economic factors, including the present recession, household food insecurity and poor food choices, may have reduced the intake of nutrient-dense foods in the past decade. The present review describes the disparity in reporting of food intake data, and deficiencies in making data that are available in electronic storage systems accessible to researchers working in the fields of public health nutrition, food production and utilisation, community nutrition and education. The creation of a working committee to make food intake data more accessible is proposed.
Community-based agricultural interventions in the context of food and nutrition security in South Africa : reviewSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 21 –30 (2011)More Less
Despite South Africa being a food-secure country in terms of aggregate food availability, it is listed by the World Health Organization as one of 36 high-burden countries, home to large numbers of stunted children. Recent findings, in the context of both over- and under-nutrition, have indicated that adult and child malnutrition rates have deteriorated in South Africa. The complementarities and synergies between food availability, access and utilisation need to be aligned in interventions used to address and strengthen food and nutrition security. This is particularly pertinent in the context of the widespread AIDS epidemic which interacts with food insecurity in complex ways.
It is against this backdrop that home-grown or small-scale food production is explored as a feasible contributor to food and nutrition security for the rural poor with particular emphasis on contextual and technical factors. By illustrating a few successful models of home gardening, the evidence for addressing micronutrient deficiencies in these types of interventions is presented. The challenges to establish sustainable home gardening practices and the efforts needed to address gender-distinctive issues are discussed. The case is made for community-based agricultural interventions as a critical component of the various interventions used to address food and nutrition security at the household level.
Knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff regarding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in non-accredited obstetric units in Cape Town : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 32 –38 (2011)More Less
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess nursing staff knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI); to assess the knowledge of maternity obstetric unit (MOU) managers regarding BFHI principles and their attitude towards BFHI implementation; and to describe the barriers and constraints to the implementation of BFHI principles.
Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey.
Setting: The study was done in eight non-BFHI-accredited primary care maternity obstetric units in Cape Town.
Subjects: The subjects were eight MOU managers and a random sample of 45 nursing staff.
Outcomes measures: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding BFHI and barriers to BFHI implementation were assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire.
Results: The study demonstrated acceptable awareness and knowledge of the recommended BFHI principles. A total of 56.6% of the staff could define rooming-in, 47.2% could define the components of the BFHI, and 52.8% could name three baby-friendly care practices and routines. Eighty-nine per cent of the nursing staff were able to demonstrate correct positioning of the baby for breastfeeding, and 91.1% could demonstrate the correct attachment of the baby to the breast. Only 8.9% of the nursing staff were able to adequately demonstrate the correct hand milk-expressing technique, 35.6% knew about the correct management of painful nipples and 22.2% knew how to manage engorgement. Only 40% could adequately describe the safe preparation of infant formula. The enrolled nursing assistants (ENA) were significantly less knowledgeable than the other cadres of nurses. The majority of the nurses had a positive attitude toward BFHI principles and practices.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 40 –45 (2011)More Less
Objective: To explore the perception among black South African women that people who are thin are infected with HIV or have AIDS.
Setting: Khayelitsha, an urban township in Cape Town.
Subjects: 513 women aged 18-65 years.
Methods: This was an exploratory study employing both quantitative and qualitative research methodology. Data were collected in two phases. The first phase involved collecting quantitative data among 513 participants. During the second phase, qualitative data were collected in a purposely selected sub-sample of 20 women. For the qualitative data collection, participants were shown eight body figures, ranging from thin to obese, and asked to choose a figure representing the ideal figure, a preferred figure and a figure thought to symbolise health. They were also invited to choose a figure that they thought represented a person infected with HIV or who had AIDS. They had the option of saying that they did not associate any of the figures with people infected with HIV or who had AIDS. Weight and height measurements were also taken. After the quantitative analysis was completed, focus group discussions explored perceptions about body image and the relation to HIV among purposely selected participants. Data were summarised by content based on questions discussed.
Results: Sixty-nine per cent of the participants associated a thin figure with a person infected with HIV, or who had AIDS. Only 10.2% thought the thin figure symbolised health. Fifty per cent preferred a normal-weight figure, while 34.2% thought that normal weight symbolised health. Only 2% thought that people in the normal-weight category were infected with HIV or had AIDS. Thirty-four per cent preferred to be overweight and 31% thought that being overweight symbolised health. None of the participants thought the overweight figure represented people infected with HIV or who had AIDS. Only 8% preferred the obese figure. The results of the qualitative data analysis suggested that participants preferred to be overweight and at risk of acquiring cardiovascular diseases, rather than being thin and stigmatised as a person infected with HIV or who had AIDS.
Conclusion: This study revealed that the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS may undermine strategies for prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases among urban black South African women.
SASPEN case study : based on a case study presented by J Vlok, BDietetics IV, and supervised by A van Staden, RD(SA) : SASPEN case studyAuthor J.E. KempSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 47 –48 (2011)More Less
The patient, a full-term male infant, was born during a normal vaginal delivery on 7 August, 2010, and admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with gastroschisis. He was the second child of a 20-year-old single mother who did not attend antenatal care, but who reported no problems during pregnancy. She did not use any vitamin or mineral supplements before or during pregnancy and reported no smoking or use of alcohol during pregnancy.