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- Volume 25, Issue 1, 2012
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 25, Issue 1, 2012
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 1, 2012
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 (2012)More Less
The multidimensionality of poverty and its implications, in broad terms, remains one of the most intensely debated and difficult to address issue worldwide. In relation to nutritional status, poverty is known to impact adversely on child growth and development, and its consequences early in life do not only include the inability to prevent malnutrition, but also to address its reversal, to the extent possible.
Author Nigel SunleySource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 7 –8 (2012)More Less
Anyone who is involved in commercial food production in South Africa cannot help but be aware of the impending arrival of our much-awaited new food labelling regulations, namely Regulation 146, and the subsequent amendments to it, that have been published over the last two years.
Genotype-based personalised nutrition for obesity prevention and treatment : are we there yet? : review articleAuthor Marjanne SenekalSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 9 –14 (2012)More Less
Interactions between genotype and dietary intake include genetic moderation of the effect of dietary intake on disease development (nutrigenetics). Research on nutrigenetics has focused mainly on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and supports the notion that interactions between genes, diet, other lifestyle factors, disease, and time (life cycle span), contribute to the risk of most polygenic nutrition-related diseases. Typically, genotype-based personalised nutrition involves genotyping for a number of susceptibility SNPs associated with the prevention, or management, of a particular disease. Dietary advice is then personalised to the individual's genotype to ensure optimal prevention or treatment outcomes. To ensure evidence-based practice, research design and methodology, applied in the investigation of relevant associations, and confirmation of causality, should be appropriate and rigorous. The process of identifying SNPs associated with disease patterns is ongoing. Of note is that the combined effect on body mass index of the SNPs at the currently confirmed 32 loci is a modest 1.45%, bearing in mind that the estimated heritability of obesity is 40-70%. Conclusions formulated by various researchers on the translation of nutrigenetics research into personalised nutrition, including obesity prevention and management, indicate that scientists hold the opinion that more research is necessary before evidence-based practice in this area can be guaranteed.
A study of the relationship between health awareness, lifestyle behaviour and food label usage in Gauteng : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 15 –21 (2012)More Less
Background : The objectives of the study were to determine whether consumers who read food labels, were also more aware of health and lifestyle issues, in terms of nutrition and other health-related lifestyle behaviours, and whether there was a relationship between food-label reading, health awareness and lifestyle behaviour. A quantitative descriptive (survey) design was selected to investigate the relationship between food-label reading on the one hand, and health awareness and lifestyle behavior on the other.
Method : A two-stage, stratified-proportionate and systematic sampling strategy was applied to select a sample of 357 Gauteng respondents to complete a telephonic questionnaire. Respondents who were most likely to read food label information were selected. Food label information is prescribed by comprehensive label legislation. Data report on respondents' label-reading habits, attitudes towards health awareness, lifestyle behaviour and biographic data. Nonparametric analysis, scale reliability tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni multiple comparisons of means tests were used to analyse the results.
Results : Results indicate that the two-thirds of respondents who, to some extent read nutritional information on food labels, were concerned about their personal health, were interested in health-related information, and followed a healthy lifestyle, such as regularly eating fresh fruit and vegetables, cutting back on alcohol, and other positive lifestyle behaviours. They were unsure about how their own knowledge of nutrition, and their understanding of nutrition information on food labels, compared with that of other consumers.
Conclusion : A relationship was found between patterns of reading food labels, health awareness and lifestyle behaviour. People who often read food labels were more health-conscious, and maintained a healthier lifestyle.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 22 –26 (2012)More Less
Background : Nutritional supplements have received attention both from food manufacturers, as a means of marketing the added value to health; and from consumers, in terms of awareness, education, and improved health. To assist this process, it is important to have specific knowledge and understanding of the claims made on labels of nutritional supplement products used for general, and more specifically, for sports consumers. The industry is not regulated, and therefore the claims that are made may not always be accurate.
Method : The aim was to describe the labelling and claims information on the labels of a select group of nutritional supplements, either manufactured in, or imported into South Africa. Specific predetermined categories of labelling and claims made on the containers were assessed and summarised.
Results : Forty products were selected for analysis, of which 21 (53%) were locally assembled or manufactured products, and 19 (48%), international imported products. Ninety-five per cent of products contained a warning statement on the label. Eighty-five per cent of the nutritional supplement products had a disclaimer on the label. Ninety-eight per cent of the nutritional supplement product labels included some claim on the label.
Conclusion : The following information, in particular, needs to be regulated and enforced as part of the labelling process, to ensure that the consumer can make an informed choice. This includes highlighting the potential for adverse events, encouraging warning statements pertaining to "exclusion of use, and "not a cure for disease states", and alerting consumers of the potential for the presence of banned substances, based on laboratory screen methods.
Reproducibility of two, three, four and five 24-hour recalls in peri-urban African adolescents in the North West province : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 27 –32 (2012)More Less
Background : The objective was to determine the reproducibility of two, three, four and five repeated 24-hour recalls among peri-urban African adolescents.
Method : A prospective study design was used within the multidisciplinary PhysicaL Activity in the Young (PLAY) study. Eighty-seven Grade 9 learners (59 girls and 28 boys, aged 10-18 years) with a mean age of 14.7 ± 1.5 years, who had completed five 24-hour recalls, were investigated. The learners were from Seiphemelo Secondary School in Ikageng, a peri-urban area in the North West province of South Africa. Reproducibility coefficients (RCs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using the intraclass correlation coefficient formula for transformed values of selected nutrients and food groups, for two, three, four and five repeated 24-hour recalls. The RCs and 95% CIs were compared in order to identify the optimum number of 24-hour recalls to give the best reproducibility results.
Results : The RCs were nutrient- and food-group sensitive and ranged from 0.25 (riboflavin) to 0.6 (carbohydrate). Although differences were not statistically significant, RCs for four and five 24-hour recalls were higher than those obtained for two and three 24-hour recalls. For most nutrients and food groups, four 24-hour recalls gave the highest RCs, with non-significant differences overall between the four and five 24-hour recalls.
Conclusion : The results suggest that four 24-hour recalls would be sufficient to provide acceptable reproducibility of reported food group and nutrient intakes among peri-urban African adolescents.
Knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and mothers towards kangaroo mother care in the eastern sub-district of Cape Town : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 33 –39 (2012)More Less
Objectives : To determine the knowledge and attitude of nursing staff and mothers towards kangaroo mother care (KMC) in the eastern sub-district of Cape Town.
Design : A cross-sectional descriptive study.
Setting and subjects : A multi-stage sample of 30 kangaroo care mothers admitted to the Helderberg District Hospital (HDH); six nurses from the HDH; and nine nurses from the seven antenatal clinics that the mothers attended. The respondents were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire.
Outcome measures : Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of KMC.
Results : Data were analysed using CDC Epi Info version 3.3.2, and Microsoft Excel software programmes. The majority of the mothers (83.3%) did not have prior knowledge of KMC. Sixty per cent of the nursing staff did not have any KMC training. The majority of the mothers were committed to KMC, were satisfied with the results (with regard to the weight gain of the infant), and indicated that they would continue to practise KMC at home. The majority of the hospital nursing staff was very positive toward KMC, and agreed that it was beneficial to both mother and infant.
Conclusion : Most of the mothers lacked prior knowledge of KMC, and were only informed about it when they were admitted to the KMC ward. All of the nursing staff who were engaged in KMC (n = 15) had a positive attitude towards it.
Author N. SolomonsSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 40 –42 (2012)More Less
The patient, a four-month old female (corrected age 3 months), was born at 36 weeks of gestation on 30 May 2011 via emergency Caesarean section, due to pre-eclampsia toxaemia to a 47-year-old mother. She is the fourth child (gravida 4, para 4) of nonconsanguineous parents. She was admitted to hospital on 14 September with difficulty breathing, and was subsequently diagnosed with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) and failure to thrive.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 (2012)More Less
Prof Philip Calder, a professor in nutritional immunology, is the international invited speaker of the Nutrition Society of South Africa. His research focuses on the influence of dietary fatty acids on aspects of cell function and human health, in particular in relation to cardiovascular disease, inflammation and immunity. A range of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the n-3 family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly those found in fish oils, have been identified.