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- Volume 25, Issue 2, 2012
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 25, Issue 2, 2012
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Volume 25, Issue 2, 2012
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 (2012)More Less
Nutrition continues to be an identified priority in the country, and appropriately so bearing in mind the nutritional disorders ranging from over- and under-nutrition as well as HIV/AIDS. As part of the efforts to evaluate progress in the field, a consultative meeting on micronutrient control interventions was held on 17th of May 2012 with participants from all relevant UN agencies, local experts and other stakeholders. The purpose of the meeting was to i) review current status of micronutrient deficiencies and micronutrient control interventions ii) review relevancy of new initiatives in micronutrients and its control interventions to the South African context, and iii) get consensus on the way forward to strengthen micronutrient control interventions.
Adiponectin could be a comprehensive marker of metabolic syndrome in obese children : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 53 –56 (2012)More Less
Objectives : The objectives were to investigate the relationship between the serum adiponectin level and the metabolic syndrome (MS) phenotype in children, and to examine the independent association between the serum adiponectin level and the individual components of MS.
Design : A cross-sectional design was used.
Subjects : Fifty-six obese children with a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex, and 50 normal-weight children matched for age and sex with the obese children, were used as controls.
Outcome measures : The main outcome measure was the serum adiponectin level.
Results : The serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in obese children, than in the normal-weight controls (7.35 ± 3.1 µg/dl vs. 10.64 ± 3.04 µg/dl). Obese children with MS have a significantly lower serum adiponectin level compared to obese children without MS (5.92 ± 1.9 µg/dl vs. 8.57 ± 2.1 µg/dl). There was a significant negative correlation between the serum adiponectin level and waist circumference, triglyceride levels, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The serum adiponectin level correlated positively with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After controlling for the confounding effect of age, sex and visceral fat, the adiponectin level remained a significant predictor of the MS [odds ratio (OR): 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.91].
Conclusion : Adiponectin demonstrated a consistent relationship to each MS component. Adiponectin may be a comprehensive marker of the MS condition.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 57 –61 (2012)More Less
Background : The objective was to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight conditions among rural black children in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was undertaken. The setting was Mankweng and Toronto, both rural settlements in Capricorn district, Limpopo province, South Africa. Participants were 1 172 school children (541 boys and 631 girls) aged 10-16 years.
Method : The prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight was examined, using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. Height and body weight were measured using standard techniques. Results were analysed with student t-test statistics, with probability level set at p-value ≤ 0.05.
Results : The percentage of children who were at risk of overweight were higher in girls (11%) than boys (9.1%), whereas obesity occurred more among the boys (5.5%), compared with the girls (4.4%). Applying the CDC cut-off points of 5th < percentile to define underweight, 25 (4.6%) and 35 (5.2%) of boys and girls respectively were underweight.
Conclusion : Similar to previous studies, this study indicates that overweight and obesity are high among South African children, even in rural settings. The study also demonstrates that underweight is prevalent among the sampled children. This supports the notion of a double burden of disease in developing countries.
Body composition in stunted, compared to non-stunted, black South African children, from two rural communities : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 62 –66 (2012)More Less
Background : The objective was to compare the body composition of black stunted, and non-stunted, children, from two rural communities in South Africa, and investigate whether increased total and central adiposity is found in stunted children. The design was a cross-sectional study. The setting was two study populations of children in rural South Africa. The subjects were 351 children aged 10-15 years old [Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans (THUSA BANA) study], and 1 760 children aged 6-13 years old [Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study (ELS)].
Method : The body mass index (BMI), BMI for age z-score, sum of triceps and subscapular skin folds (SSF), waist circumference (WC), waist:height ratio (WHtR) of stunted, and non-stunted, children, were compared.
Results : Almost 10% (n = 203) of children were stunted, and 34% had a BMI for age z-score below -2. After adjustment for age, non-stunted children had significantly higher values for BMI and WC, in both boys and girls. SSF was similar in stunted and non-stunted boys, but tended to be greater in non-stunted, rather than stunted girls. In the ELS, stunted boys and girls had significantly higher WHtR than non-stunted children, while similar results were found in the THUSA BANA study, although the difference was not significant in the girls. All stunted groups had a WHtR greater than 0.41, proposed as a cut-off point due to its association with increased risk for high blood pressure in children.
Conclusion : More research needs to be carried out on anthropometric indices for the distribution of body fat, independent of age, race, gender, and sexual maturation, in children and adolescents. This study showed inconsistent results, and highlights the complexity of using various adiposity measures in stunted and non-stunted children.
Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional status of older adults in the Lake Victoria Basin of East Africa : region, sex, and age differences : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 67 –72 (2012)More Less
Background : Malnutrition, either as undernutrition or overnutrition, leads to detrimental alterations in body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate selected anthropometric measurements, and the nutritional status of older men and women living in the Lake Victoria Basin. This was a cross-sectional study.
Setting : The setting was selected rural and urban areas of Kisumu, Jinja, and Mwanza, in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, respectively.
Subjects : The subjects were older adults (227 men and 310 women) aged ≥ 60 years.
Outcome measures : The outcome measures were weight, height, arm span, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF). Body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area (AMA) were computed using standard equations.
Results : The results show that older adults in the three regions were significantly different (p-value < 0.05) in all anthropometric measurements, except MUAC. The women had significantly higher (p-value < 0.05) BMI, TSF, and MUAC, than the men. Negative slopes indicated a decline in all anthropometric measurements with age. Overall underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was 26.4%, 58.3% were normal (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), 10.8% were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2), and 4.5% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Older men (29.5%) were significantly more underweight (p-value < 0.05) than older women (24.2%), with overweight (12.5%) and obesity (6.8%) being significantly higher (p-value < 0.05) in older women.
Conclusion : The findings suggest energy depletion and loss of muscle mass, with significant differences in the three regions, and in the sex and age groups. A small proportion was overweight and obese. The decline in anthropometric measurements with age indicates poor nutritional status with aging. Thus, nutrition and health interventions should be specific to regions.
Author C.H. NieuwoudtSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 73 –76 (2012)More Less