- A-Z Publications
- South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Previous Issues
- Volume 25, Issue 4, 2012
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 25, Issue 4, 2012
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 4, 2012
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 (2012)More Less
The year ends with two landmark events, as summarised in the Society News section of the SAJCN: the SASPEN Joint Congress that was held with a number of other interdisciplinary societies, and the ADSA-Nutrition Society Congress in the latter part of 2012, in which a number of current issues on nutrition were addressed. The attention that current nutrition policy is receiving at national government level within the framework of the National Evaluation Policy Framework is also of critical importance. A given policy, by its very nature, can only be as good as its frequent, if not continuous, monitoring and evaluation.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 162 –163 (2012)More Less
Undernutrition affects a large proportion of children in developing countries. Black et al estimated that, in 2005, 32% of all children under five years of age in developing countries were stunted and that 20% were underweight. Many factors are responsible for these figures, including maternal undernutrition, intrauterine growth restriction, lack of or inadequate breastfeeding, poor complementary infant-feeding practices beyond six months of age, and the interaction between undernutrition and recurrent infections. These authors estimated that maternal and child undernutrition was the underlying cause of 3.5 million deaths annually and 35% of the disease burden in children under the age of five years. While many countries have shown impressive reductions in under-five mortality since 2005, thus probably reducing these figures to some extent,2 undernutrition remains a major factor that is responsible for child mortality and morbidity.
Author A. BassonSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 164 –172 (2012)More Less
Malnutrition, nutrient deficiencies and osteoporosis are common in patients with Crohn's disease, regardless of disease activity. While the role of diet in the pathogenesis of the disease remains inconclusive, upon diagnosis, nutrition therapy plays an integral role in patient care. Successfulnutrition intervention involves appropriate nutritional assessment, supplemental nutrition and individualised counselling and support.
Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible strategies to promote nutrition in returnee children aged 6-23 months in northern Uganda : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 173 –179 (2012)More Less
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight and wasting, feeding patterns, water use and sanitation patterns in children aged 6-23 months in returnee villages in northern Uganda, and then to identify feasible strategies to promote nutrition. Perceived understanding of the presentation and causes of undernutrition was also assessed.
Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey, carried out in May and June 2010.
Setting and subjects: The study was conducted in the districts of Agago and Pader in northern Uganda in 219 children aged 6-23 months.Outcome measures: Weight and mid-upper-arm circumference were determined for underweight and wasting, respectively. Focus group discussions were held with adults to determine perceived understanding, presentation and causes of undernutrition.
Results: Over 11% of the children were wasted. Those aged 6-11 months were the most wasted. Eighteen per cent of them were underweight.Those aged 12-17 months had the highest prevalence of underweight. Eighty-three per cent of the children were still breastfeeding and 47% were exclusively breastfed. The largest proportion (38.8%) of children ate twice daily and 4.1% had not eaten any food on the day prior to the visit. The water usage rate was 13.3 litres/person/day. The majority (57.5%) of households did not have their own pit latrines and disposed of faeces in the bush (87%). Communities had good knowledge of causes of undernutrition, its consequences and the required practices to prevent and control it.
Conclusion: This assessment has informed the need for holistic approaches to address the challenge of undernutrition in children aged 6-23 months in returnee villages in northern Uganda. Interventions that target improvement in complementary feeding, particularly between the ages of 6-11 months, while also addressing pertinent issues of water and sanitation, hold the most potential to address the challenge.
The nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis in comparison with tuberculosis-free contacts in Delft, Western CapeSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 180 –185 (2012)More Less
Objective: To report on the nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison to contacts who are tuberculosis free.
Design: This was a community-based case-control study. Setting and subjects: The study was conducted in Delft, a periurban community in the Western Cape. Forty-three newly diagnosed patients with tuberculosis were recruited as cases and matched according to age, gender and race to 43 tuberculosis-free contacts.
Outcome measures: Each participant was interviewed and completed a structured questionnaire to provide demographic information. Weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg and height to the nearest 1 mm. Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) was measured to the nearest 1 mm and skinfold thickness measurements to the nearest 0.2 mm. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to obtain dietary information and analysed in the nutrition database of the Medical Research Council in order to translate foods into nutrients. Biochemical analyses were carried out to measure concentrations of transferrin, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, zinc, copper and vitamins A and E. Means (± standard deviation) and confidence intervals were used to describe serum micronutrient and biochemical levels. Medians (minimum and maximum) were used to describe the nutrient intake and anthropometric status of patients.
Results: The median body mass index for tuberculosis cases was 18.80 kg/mÂ² [interquartile range (IQR) 14.35, 32.11] and for tuberculosis free contacts 21.17 kg/mÂ² (IQR 16.75, 34.98), with a significant difference between the groups with a p-value = 0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in weight (p-value = 0.002) and MUAC (p-value = 0.000) between groups; and in ferritin (p-value = 0.000) and CRP (p-value = 0.000) in patients with tuberculosis; while albumin (p-value = 0.000), serum zinc (p-value = 0.000) and serum vitamin A (p-value = 0.000) were significantly lower in cases.
Conclusion: : Newly diagnosed patients with tuberculosis have a poorer nutritional status than their tuberculosis-free counterparts. This may be a result of the acute phase response, increased metabolism and anorexia.
Development of predictive equations for total body water using the deuterium-dilution method as the gold standard in a population of asymptomatic HIV-positive Zulu women in South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 186 –191 (2012)More Less
Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women.
Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing prospective study that observed the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal and child health in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV-positive women were used for this objective.
Setting: A community health centre in Durban.
Subjects: Asymptomatic HIV-infected women who were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy. They were resident in the area and were of Zulu ethnicity.
Outcome measures: Development of predictive equations for total body water.
Results: Success was achieved in developing predictive equations for total body water using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measurements that were specific to the HIV-positive female Zulu population. These equations were developed using the total body water that was obtained from deuterium-dilution method as a gold standard.
Conclusion: These predictive equations are likely to be more valid for the HIV-positive female African populations of similar build than the current predictive equations that derive from the Western population.
The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of healthcare students and professionals regarding the interdisciplinary health worker team at Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 192 –196 (2012)More Less
Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of healthcare students and qualified health professionals regarding theinterdisciplinary health worker team.
Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.
Setting: Stellenbosch University (Tygerberg Campus) and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape.
Subjects: The sample (n = 529) consisted of first-year students, final-year students and working professionals in the fields of medicine, dietetics, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech-language and hearing therapy.
Outcome measures: Self-administered, face-validated questionnaire.
Results: There was an increase in knowledge in the final-year students when compared to the first-year students of their understanding of each profession. However, this improvement was not apparent when the working professionalsâ?? understanding was compared to the final year students. The results indicated an increase in understanding of the scope of practice of allied health sciences (p-value = 0.001), and agreement that the patient would always benefit from an interdisciplinary approach. It was found that better patient prognosis was strongly associated with the care provided by an interdisciplinary team. This association increased from first-year students to final-year students (p-value = 0.019). Doctors were considered to be most valuable in the interdisciplinary team. The allied health sciences received comparable value ratings. The more advanced the years of experience, the less comfortable participants were to assume some of the roles of another discipline. Knowledge of the role of the dietitian increased from first-year students to final-year students (p-value = 0.001), but it remained the same for the professionals.
Conclusion: There was an increase in knowledge and a positive change in the attitudes and perceptions of healthcare students and professionals in accordance with years of experience.
Author K. RobertsSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, pp 197 –198 (2012)More Less
A 34-year-old man was admitted to the trauma unit after being involved in a motor vehicle accident, when the truck that he was driving overturned and entrapped him. Upon admission, the patient presented with blunt abdominal and chest trauma, a head injury and bilateral haemopneumothoraces. He was subsequently intubated and ventilated. The patient went into septic shock and required inotropic support.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 (2012)More Less
The 2012 Critical 4 Africa Congress was a first combined collaboration between the Critical Care Society of SA (CCSSA), SA Thoracic Society (SATS), SA Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SASPEN) and Trauma Society of SA (TSSA). The congress was attended by 896 delegates, 52 companies exhibited and 141 speakers presented in the various state-of-the art plenary and parallel sessions. Seventeen international speakers participated at this event, including two for SASPEN, namely Dr Robert Martindale and Dr Paul Wischmeyer, both from the USA.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 (2012)More Less
At the Biennial General Meeting of the Nutrition Society of South Africa, held on Tuesday, 2 October 2012 in Bloemfontein, Prof Marius Smuts was reelected as President of the NSSA for the period 2012-2014. Council members for this term will be Profs Rina Swart, Lesley Bourne, Ali Dhansay, Salome Kruger, Corrina Walsh and Carin Napier, and Drs Paul van Jaarsveld, Namukolo Covic and Nazeeia Sayed. A total of 90 new members joined NSSA during 2011-2012.