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- Volume 26, Issue 1, 2013
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 26, Issue 1, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 26, Issue 1, 2013
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26 (2013)More Less
With the New Year already close to being four months' old, the Editorand the Editorial Management Board wish to express their gratitude to all subscribers, authors, reviewers and members of the nutrition industry, who support the continued publication of the SAJCN withyour advertisements, and which are peer-reviewed before being accepted for publication. The New Year starts with the good news that the SAJCN is ranked seventh in a list of accredited medical South African journals, with an impact factor of 0.166 (with an upward trend).
Author Lisanne Du PlessisSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 4 –5 (2013)More Less
Nutrition during the first 1 000 days of life, i.e. from pregnancy to a child's second birthday, has been shown to present a golden opportunity for nutrition interventions. Therefore, it is critical to improve feeding and care practices during this period to enhance children's growth, nutritional status, health and development.
Sport nutrition : a review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition : review articleAuthor S. PotgieterSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 6 –16 (2013)More Less
Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines which explore the connection between nutrition, exercise and well-being form a crucial part of any athleteâ??s competitive and training programme. Guidelines that are based on sound scientific evidence about the quantity, structure and timing of food intake are important to ensure that athletes train more effectively to reduce the risk of injury and illness. Appropriate nutrition complements training and recovery and can induce metabolic adaptations to training. Adequate energy should derive from a variety of foods that provide carbohydrates, proteins, fat and micronutrients. Maintenance of the energy balance in individuals with increased requirements because of physical activity is important. Challenges may arise in the case of larger athletes and those who partake in high-volume intense training. Habitual carbohydrate intake is essential for physically active individuals and should be timed according to training sessions to ensure optimal pre-, during, and post-workout nutrition. Dietary protein requirements are slightly elevated in the case of strength, speed and endurance training. Consideration of the quality and timing of protein intake is important. The fat requirements of athletes are similar or somewhat higher, so consumption of adequate amounts of fat is essential for optimal health, maintenance of energy balance, optimal intake of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins and minerals are needed to provide a health benefit, although the ergogenic effect of most micronutrients is still unclear and warrants further research. Supplements and sports foods are used extensively and although the use of some supplements may be ergogenic, the risk to benefit ratio needs to be carefully considered before embarking on the widespread use of supplements.
Cry, the beloved bottle : infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers and caregivers in an urban township outside Bloemfontein, Free State province : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 17 –22 (2013)More Less
Objectives: To investigate knowledge of and practices regarding bottle-feeding preparation, as well as the nutrient content and microbial safety of bottles that are prepared by mothers and caregivers for infants aged 0-24 months.
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey.
Setting: Urban township, Mangaung, outside Bloemfontein.
Subjects: A sample of 189 mothers or caregivers of healthy infants aged 0-24 months, who were exclusively formula fed or mixed fed with breast milk and infant formula or cow's milk, were randomly selected in a household survey.
Outcome measures: An interviewer-administered questionnaire and/or observed practices were used for data collection. Bottle-feed samples were also collected and analysed for nutrient and microbial content.
Results: Mother and caregiver knowledge on infant feeding was poor. An acceptable method for preparing a bottle feed in five steps was evaluated. Only 4.2% of the total sample applied all five steps. A total of 84.5% (n = 160) of all the collected feeds was contaminated with E coli. A lower level of maternal education was associated with a greater likelihood of feed contamination. The predominant source of bottle feeding preparation information was clinic staff (28%).
Conclusion: The findings were indicative of a lack of knowledge, and possibly resource limitations, to facilitate safe bottle-feeding practices. Acknowledgement of clinic staff as a source of infant-feeding information highlights the role of healthcare workers as facilitators of appropriate infant-feeding practices.
Prevalence of and contributing factors to dyslipidaemia in low-income women aged 18-90 years in the peri-urban Vaal region : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 23 –29 (2013)More Less
Objective: Determining the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and examining dietary and other contributing factors, namely hypertension, overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal blood lipid levels in women aged 18-90 years.
Design: Cross-sectional baseline survey study.
Setting: Peri-urban Vaal region.
Subjects: Seven hundred and twenty-two randomly selected black women in four purposively selected settlements in the Vaal region.
Outcome measures: Measurements included dietary intake (24-hour recall), anthropometric (weight and height), and blood pressure and biochemical indices (lipid profile) with venous blood samples. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, t-tests and regression analyses.
Results: A large percentage (34.3%) of the women (aged 18-90 years old) was dyslipidaemic. The majority of women in the nondyslipidaemic group were overweight (52.6%). 86.2% of the women in the dyslipidaemic group were obese. The total fat intake was 20% of total energy intake in both groups. No significant differences were observed between the dietary fat intake variables between the groups. Body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.554, p-value = 0.000), age (β = 0.419, p-value = 0.000), education (β = 0.250, p-value = 0.000), total energy intake (β = 0.105, p-value = 0.006) and total fat intake (β = 0.092, p-value = 0.018) were predictors of dyslipidaemia in these women.
Conclusion: Dyslipidaemia was prevalent. High triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were the most frequent abnormalities. Although positive associations existed between the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and the known risk factors of cardiovascular disease, such as ageing, hypertension, obesity and an abnormal lipid profile; BMI, age and education were the main predictors of dyslipidaemia.
Nutritional status and food intake data on children and adolescents in residential care facilities in Durban : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 29 –36 (2013)More Less
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine growth indicators and dietary intake patterns of children aged 4-18 years residing in residential care facilities in Durban.
Method: Thirty-three girls and 110 boys, aged 5-18 years, in three different children’s homes participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height and were analysed using the World Health Organization's AnthroPlus® version 1.0.2 statistical software. The seven-day-cycle menus were analysed for nutrient and energy intake using the FoodFinder® version 3 software programme. Daily nutrient intakes were reported as means and standard deviations, and comparisons were made with the dietary reference intakes for specific age groups. Average served portion sizes were established by plate waste studies and observation.
Results: The results showed that stunting and overweight were prevalent in this group. 4.7% of the boys aged 4-8 years and 3.3% of the boys aged 14-18 years were severely stunted. 13.3% of the girls aged 9-13 years and 20% of the girls aged 14-18 years were stunted. The body mass index for age reported that a small number (6.7% of the girls aged 9-13 years and 3.3% of the boys aged 14-18 years) were wasted. The results also showed that 33.3% of the girls aged 4-8 years and 33.4% of the girls aged 9-13 years were at risk of being overweight. 26.7% of the girls aged 14-18 years were overweight (> + 2 standard deviations). Most of the children in the 4-8 age group (83.3% of the boys and 100% of the girls) fell in the normal range for weight for age, while only one boy was underweight. One hundred per cent or more of the dietary reference intakes for energy, protein, carbohydrate and most of the micronutrients were met, except for calcium and iodine. A low intake of vitamin C among older boys and girls was reported. None of the groups met the recommended fibre intake.
Conclusion: The results indicated a need for the development and implementation of a comprehensive nutrition education programme for both child care workers and children.
Tuck-shop purchasing practices of Grade 4 learners in Pietermaritzburg and childhood overweight and obesity : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 37 –42 (2013)More Less
Objectives: To determine the anthropometric characteristics of Grade 4 learners in relation to their tuck-shop purchasing practices.
Design: A cross-sectional research design using a questionnaire that was administered to Grade 4 learners.
Setting and subjects: Four well-resourced primary schools in Pietermaritzburg. The study included 311 Grade 4 learners.
Outcome measures: Body mass index interpreted in relation to tuck-shop purchasing practices.
Results: Fifty-six per cent of the sample were female (n = 173) and 44% were male (n = 138) learners. Twenty-seven per cent of the study sample was overweight (n = 83) and 27% was obese (n = 85). Eighty-six per cent of the learners (n = 266) made purchases from their school tuck shop. Twenty-two per cent did so at least three times per week (n = 58). Learners who bought from the tuck shop had a significantly higher body mass index compared to those who did not (p-value < 0.020). Learners who purchased from the tuck shop spent an average of R8.38 per day, a minimum of R1 and a maximum of R40 (± R5.39). The most popular reasons for visiting the tuck shop included: "This is my favourite thing to eat or drink" (66.5%, n = 177), and "I only have enough money to buy this item" (47%, n = 125).
Conclusion: Poor tuck-shop purchasing practices may contribute to the development of childhood overweight and obesity in learners. Successful preventative strategies should focus on restricting the amount of unhealthy items that are available for sale, imposing spending limits and motivating learners to prioritise healthy food and beverage purchases.
Author F. Van SchalkwykSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, pp 43 –46 (2013)More Less