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- Volume 27, Issue 1, 2014
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 27, Issue 1, 2014
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Volume 27, Issue 1, 2014
The double burden of underweight and overweight in South African adolescents : a challenge and an opportunity for nutritionists and dietitians : guest editorialAuthor Salome KrugerSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 5 –6 (2014)More Less
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in paediatric populations in developed and developing countries. During puberty, rapid and dynamic changes occur with respect to body composition and hormonal regulation, which may be associated with a future risk of disease. The South African National Health and Examination Survey (SANHANES-1) reported on the anthropometric nutritional status of South African children and adolescents. The results provided recent and clear evidence of the double burden of malnutrition in adolescents at national level, and confirmed that overweight and obesity in adolescent girls is of particular concern.
When science meets culture : the prevention and management of erectile dysfunction in the 21st century : review articleSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 7 –12 (2014)More Less
Traditionally, the term "impotence" has been used to signify a male's inability to attain and maintain an erection. Impotence, in most circumstances, is more precisely referred to as erectile dysfunction (ED). An estimated 10-20 million men suffer from the condition. However, this number is expected to increase dramatically, with an estimated figure of 322 million by 2025. Even though the prevalence of ED increases with age, it must be stressed that ageing itself is not a cause of ED as it is associated with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity. Many patients self-medicate by resorting to local herbs and over-the-counter (OTC) preparations to manage ED. Because of the increasing number of men seeking treatment for ED, there is a need to assess the safety and biological plausibility of some of the readily available preparations (as well as food and drink) that reportedly enhance sexual desire or performance. For the purpose of this review, the aphrodisiacal qualities of freely available foods and natural OTC products will be reviewed and evaluated. These include oysters, alcoholic beverages, chocolate, chilli, Epimedium extract (horny goat weed), Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Tribulis terrestris, Eriosema kraussianum and Spanish fly (cantharides).
Knowledge of nutrition facts on food labels and their impact on food choices on consumers in Koforidua, Ghana : a case study : original researchAuthor S. DarkwaSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 13 –17 (2014)More Less
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' knowledge of food labels and how this knowledge guides their decisions when making purchasing choices with regard to food.
Design: This was a descriptive research design study.
Setting: The setting was the suburb of Koforidua Municipality in the Eastern region of Ghana.
Subjects: One hundred and forty-three customers were observed in store from four randomly sampled supermarkets. One hundred of these customers completed a self-administered questionnaire.
Outcome measures: Measurements included observation and a self-administered questionnaire that elicited information on label-reading habits, attitudes towards health awareness and the influence of food labels on food choices. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Sixty-five of the 100 consumers (54 females and 46 males) who consented to respond to the questionnaire looked at or read food labels before selecting a food to purchase. Seventy-five per cent reported reading the food labels prior to selecting food. This study found that nutrition knowledge had a low to average impact on consumers' food choices. Half of the consumers who reported reading the food labels did not do so regularly. This could have implications on how often such information is used when purchasing food. Also, only 22% of the study respondents answered correctly when asked to explain "26% RDA (recommended dietary allowance) vitamin A per serving" on a food label, even though 45% of the respondents had a tertiary education.
Conclusion: These findings indicate awareness and knowledge of food labelling which may not always adequately impact on food choices, even though study respondents indicated high awareness and low to average reading of labels prior to purchasing food.
The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a multiracial group of urban adolescent schoolchildren in the Cape Metropole area of Cape Town : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 18 –24 (2014)More Less
Objective: The objective was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in high school learners in the Cape Town area.
Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.
Setting: High schools in the Cape Metropole Area of the Western Cape.
Subjects: A complex cluster sampling procedure was followed. Thirty-six students per school were selected from each randomly selected school. Thirteen- to 18-year-old pupils were eligible for inclusion.
Outcome measures: Height and weight measurements.
Results: The sample comprised 689 students. There were considerably more underweight adolescent boys than adolescent girls (17.3% boys to 9.9% girls), and double the frequency of overweight adolescent girls than adolescent boys (7.7% girls to 3.5% boys). The 14-year-old boys had the highest prevalence of underweight (55.2%), and the 17-year-old girls the highest prevalence of overweight (22%). The highest prevalence of obesity was found in 15-year-old boys (11.1%), who also demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of underweight (30.2%).
Conclusion: This study reported on a substantial percentage of underweight adolescents (27.1%). Noteworthy levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls added to the substantial prevalence of underweight in adolescent boys. Africa has enough to contend with in respect of transmissible diseases, without additional lifestyle-based health burdens.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 25 –30 (2014)More Less
Objective: The objective was to assess the dietary intake of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare it to that of international recommendations. The hypothesising assumption of this study was that a situation in which subjects insist that diet or trigger foods play a part in symptom generation may lead to an unbalanced dietary intake.
Design: This was a descriptive observational study, with an analytical component.
Setting: A private, secondary care-level clinic in South Africa.
Subjects: The study population comprised 122 participants. Each subject completed an estimated, three-day dietary record. The data were analysed using a computerised food analysis programme. The fructose intake was analysed semi-quantitatively. IBS subjects' protein and carbohydrate intake were significantly higher than the recommended dietary allowance for protein and carbohydrate (p-values < 0.000 and < 0.000, respectively).
Outcome measures: The identification of dietary risk factors that affect IBS.
Results: The IBS subjects' daily total dietary fibre (15.13 g ± 13.11) was significantly lower (p-value < 0.000) than the dietary reference intake (DRI) target intake of 24.76 g/day, and the intake of micronutrients (calcium, iron and folate), was significantly less than the DRI. There was no significant difference in macronutrient intake between the diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS), constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS) and the control groups. The total number of fructose serves per day was not statistically significant between the three groups (C-IBS 2.68 ± 1.68, D-IBS 2.15 ± 1.86, and controls 3.17 ± 2.39, p-value = 0.157).
Conclusion: The IBS subjects in this study consumed diets that were deficient in key micronutrients and total fibre when judged against the recommended DRIs. Dietary adjustments may have been tailored by subjects to minimise symptom development and this led to nutritionally deficient diets.
Acceptance of a ready-to-use supplementary food by stable HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated patients : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 31 –37 (2014)More Less
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine consumer acceptance and perceptions of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) by subjects treated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected subjects).
Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.
Subjects: One hundred and thirty-nine stable HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated patients participated in the study. Sixty-eight healthy subjects served as the control group.
Setting: The setting was Northdale Hospital and Grey's Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal.
Outcome measures: Acceptance of the RUSF was assessed using a five-point facial hedonic scale by stable HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated patients (n = 139) from Northdale Hospital and Grey's Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal. Perceptions of the RUSF were determined through focus group discussions in which HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated patients (n = 43) participated.
Results: The overall acceptance of the RUSF was significantly associated with the health status of the subjects (p-value < 0.05). Overall, the product was liked by more than 90% of the HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated individuals compared to 85% of the control group. More than 90% of the HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated individuals liked the taste, compared to 87% of the control group. The colour and mouth feel were rated to be "good" by more than 80% of the HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated group, compared to approximately 70% of the healthy group. Focus group discussions revealed that the subjects perceived the mouth feel of the RUSF to be "rough", and that as a health supplement, the RUSF should be provided free of charge, or at a reasonable cost, at public health centres.
Conclusion: The RUSF was found to be highly acceptable to stable HIV-treated and HIV and tuberculosis (co-infected)-treated subjects, although concern was raised about the mouth feel.
Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with intradialytic parenteral nutritionSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 38 –43 (2014)More Less
The learning objectives of the case study were:
- To discuss the management of a patient with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis.
- To discuss the nutritional recommendations of adults with endstage kidney disease (ESKD) on haemodialysis.
- To discuss intradialytic parenteral nutrition as a nutrition therapeutic intervention.
- To discuss refeeding syndrome as a complication of nutrition intervention.
- To discuss ethical considerations regarding parenteral nutrition in South Africa.