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- South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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- Volume 27, Issue 3, 2014
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 27, Issue 3, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 27, Issue 3, 2014
Author Douw GreeffSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27 (2014)More Less
SAJCN readers will see that we have "gone all out" in the previous edition to showcase that the SAJCN is accredited with the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) or that it is on the South African journal list of approved journals that are accredited for research subsidy. Or, that the journal is approved or accredited to measure the research output of public higher education institutions. Previously "SAPSE-accredited".
Dietary strategies to treat hyperhomocysteinaemia based on the biochemistry of homocysteine : a reviewAuthor C. Nienaber-RousseauSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 93 –100 (2014)More Less
Hyperhomocysteinaemia is implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Several conditions influence the concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), including demographic, genetic and lifestyle factors. With regard to the latter, dietary components may be manipulated as Hcy can be remethylated to methionine by folate, or metabolised by other one-carbon nutrients, such as betaine and its precursor, choline. This metabolic interplay enables the nutritionist or dietitian to be able to lower Hcy concentrations cost-effectively by tailoring an individual's diet, or by food enrichment and fortification strategies. Evidence supports the safety and benefits of Hcy reduction by simple dietary intervention. B vitamins, and betaine and choline intake lower Hcy, whereas methionine and certain beverages (coffee, tea and alcohol) increase it. Therefore, dietary determinants of Hcy raise the prospect of a simple, inexpensive and safe means of treating and/or preventing diseases contingent on this sulphur-containing protein.
Author Christina NieuwoudtSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 102 –105 (2014)More Less
Nutrition care is not always recognised as a patient safety issue. This article explores the origins of the patient safety initiative and seeks to identify possible connections between nutrition care and patient safety. Examples of tools that can be used to improve the safety of nutrition care are provided. This is also a call to action as patient safety data for nutrition care in the South African context are lacking and much can be learned from worldwide patient safety initiatives.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 108 –109 (2014)More Less
The main objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of Stunted Child and Overweight Mother (SCOM) pairs in a South African setting. After a literature review of existing South African studies, the authors plan to inspire South African researchers to investigate the region-specific prevalence of SCOM in their respective areas, and to create a series of discussion papers and reviews in order to harness evidence-based strategies that could support ongoing efforts with respect to mother and child malnutrition in South African. This pilot study, carried out in the QuaQua region of the Free State, indicates the existence of a linear association between a mother's waist circumference and her child's stunted status.
Eating behaviour, eating attitude and body mass index of dietetic students versus non-dietetic majors : a South African perspective : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 109 –113 (2014)More Less
Objectives : The objective was to determine and compare the eating behaviour, eating attitude and body mass index (BMI) of dietetic students to those of non-dietetic majors.
Design : This was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey.
Setting : The setting was the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
Subjects : The subjects were a random sample of 83 first-year non-dietetic major students; 24 first-, 20 third- and 18 fourth-year dietetic students.
Outcome measures : Outcome measures were the results of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT 26) and BMI.
Results : According to the TFEQ, there was a high prevalence of eating restraint, followed by disinhibition of eating and hunger scores, in first-year dietetic students. Measures of these subscales were similar for non-dietetic majors. A significant difference between the two groups was observed with regard to eating restraint (p-value < 0.001). The mean scores for the EAT 26 from both of the first-year groups were not indicative of an eating disorder. A higher prevalence of disordered eating was observed in first-year dietetic students (p-value < 0.059). Lower levels of eating restraint and disinhibition were documented in dietetic students in subsequent years of study. The mean BMI of all of the participant categories was within the normal range.
Conclusion : There was a higher prevalence of eating disorders in first-year dietetic students than in students taking non-dietetic majors. Eating disorders in these students highlight the need for similar studies to be conducted at other local universities offering dietetics as a subject.
Narratives of urban female adolescents in South Africa : dietary and physical activity practices in an obesogenic environment : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 114 –119 (2014)More Less
Objectives : The objectives of this study were to investigate the narratives pertaining to dietary and physical activity practices by female adolescents in Soweto.
Design : This was exploratory qualitative research, using duo interviews (pairs of best friends) (n = 29) from adolescent females.
Setting : The setting was three urban high schools in the township of Soweto, South Africa.
Subjects : Subjects were twenty-nine pairs of Grade 12 female adolescents predominantly, with a mean age of 18 years (15.3-21.6, standard deviation 1.1).
Outcome measures : The outcome measure was body mass index, interpreted in relation to eating practices and exercise participation.
Results : Locally prepared convenience foods were reported to replace home-prepared breakfast. The majority of participants did not prioritise eating breakfast at home, but purchased deep-fried dough balls ("fat" cakes) from vendors before school. Lunch boxes were also not commonly used as participants preferred to use spending money to purchase food from the school tuck shop. Kotas, "fat" cakes and snacks were popular lunch choices because of their affordability, convenience, peer influence and popularity. Respondents engaged in minimal active recreational activities. A lack of facilities and concerns about safety were barriers to activity.
Conclusion : This study highlights the importance of investigating the immediate social context as a potential intervention point to improve the lifestyle of adolescents, to enable them to make the affordable and convenient choice, the healthier choice.
A desire for weight loss in season increases disordered eating behaviour risk and energy deficiency in athletes : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 120 –126 (2014)More Less
Objective : The objective was to explore eating behaviour, body image and energy status in female university team sport athletes.
Design : This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study design.
Setting : The setting was North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
Subjects : Subjects were top university female field hockey and netball player volunteers, aged 18-30 years (n = 22), and recruited during their sport season.
Outcome measures : Athletes completed demographic, health and sport, and body weight questionnaires. The Eating Disorder Inventory and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire's cognitive dietary restraint subscale were used to measure disordered eating behaviour. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Estimated energy availability (estEA) was determined from a three-day diet and exercise record.
Results : Fifteen (68%) athletes were identified with an increased risk of disordered eating. Sixteen (73%) were dieting. A low estEA (24 ± 12 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day) was found in 59% of the athletes, of whom 85% (11/13) had increased risk of disordered eating. A significantly positive (p-value < 0.05) association was found between cognitive dietary restraint and drive for thinness (r = 0.4) and body weight (r = 0.5). A negative association was found between desired weight loss (r = -0.5), energy intake (r = -0.5) and estEA (r = -0.7).
Conclusion : Nonlean build athletes who diet in season are at increased risk of disordered eating behaviour and low energy availability.
Author N. NortjeSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 128 –131 (2014)More Less
Research confirms that students carrying out their fieldwork are faced with various ethical conundrums and are unsure as to how to address these. This study identifies and discusses four major issues in this regard, namely confidentiality issues, the distribution of limited resources, power struggles and conflicting values with clients.
Author A. Du ToitSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, pp 133 –138 (2014)More Less
The use of the open abdomen as a technique in the management of complex surgery patients can be the result of a variety of contributing factors, including surgical or medical causes, as well as indications. The early initiation of goal-directed enteral nutrition support improves wound healing, decreases intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, and might improve survival following critical illness or injury. The benefits of enteral nutrition in surgical and critical illness have been recognised since the early 1980s and are now well described. Because of the nature of these patients, the establishment of sufficient enteral nutrition support can be challenging. Therefore, they might require parenteral nutrition (PN) support in the early postoperative phase until the physiological status has normalised. The early use of PN is of particular importance in patients with pre-existing malnutrition. Nutrition support in the patient discussed in this publication was complicated by haemodynamic instability, fluid restriction owing to renal failure and fistula formation in the open abdomen, which necessitated the long-term use of PN support.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27 (2014)More Less
The ADSA Executive Committee national roadshow will visit each of its branches in the coming months to introduce the ADSA social media guidelines, as well as provide an update on exciting developments within ADSA. Attend the roadshow at your local branch and complete the corresponding CPD article to earn four ethics points.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27 (2014)More Less
The Cape Branch of NSSA hosted a mini-symposium on fatty acids on 31 July to address the current controversial issue of fat in the diet. The expert panel of speakers included Dr Celeste Naude, Stellenbosch University; Prof David Marais, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital; Dr Petro Wolmarans, Medical Research Council; and Dr Dawie van Velden, Stellenbosch University. The event was attended by 120 people.