n Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Progressive HIV infection in the presence of a raised CD4+ count : HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection : case report

Volume 14, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1608-9693
  • E-ISSN: 2078-6751



There are a number of pathophysiological causes for a normal or raised CD4 count in the context of progressive HIV infection. These include various co-infections, previous splenectomy, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Such circumstances can both confound HIV diagnosis and delay initiation of chemoprophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We describe the case of a patient co-infected with HIV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) who, prior to HAART initiation, was found to have progressive immune deficiency associated with a raised CD4 count.

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