n Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Tuberculosis preventative therapy in HIV infection : guidelines




HIV infection causes progressive deterioration of cell-mediated immunity that results in an inability to contain pre-existing dormant infection with and new exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The risk of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals who have been exposed to M. tuberculosis, as assessed by a positive tuberculin skin test, is approximately 10% per annum. TB is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients in South Africa, as is the case elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. In areas of high HIV prevalence TB incidence has increased alarmingly. It is estimated that approximately 50% of new adult cases of TB in South Africa are attributable to HIV.


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