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- Volume 2004, Issue 14, 2004
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Volume 2004, Issue 14, 2004
Volumes & issues
Volume 2004, Issue 14, 2004
Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE MARCH 2004 5 sexual violence - the neglected epidemic South Africa is thought to have one of the highest incidences of sexual assault in the worldAbout 50 000 rapes were reported in 2001 alone, although it is thought that this is just a small percentage of the total numberOne of the main reasons that rape is so prevalent in South Africa is that the justice system is so ineffective in dealing with itMost rapists walk freeOf 50 000 reported cases in 2001 only about 5 000 resulted in convictionsSimilar statistics were reported ..
Author Linda-Gail BekkerSource: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE MARCH 2004 7 CHALLENGES AHEAD 'Lack of access to antiretroviral therapy is a global health emergencyTo deliver antiretroviral treatment to the millions who need it, we must change the way we think and change the way we act.' Wise words spoken by Lee Jong-wook, Director General of the World Health OrganisationThe 3 by 5 initiative was created by WHO because the six million people currently infected with HIV in the developing world need access to antiretroviral therapy to surviveOnly 400 000 people worldwide have this accessSo WHO has set the targets at ..
Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 8 –14 (2004)More Less
The advent of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) has resulted in significantly improved survival of patients and a reduction in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. <br>At the root of these clinical benefits is a dramatic reduction in HIV viral load HAART induces a sustained effective suppression of HIV replication in most patients and leads to a preservation or restoration of immune function. <br>The restoration of an impaired immune system is assessed by clinical parameters, immunological changes which can be measured in the laboratory and a marked reduction in the morbidity and mortality of patients<br>To understand the features of immune restoration it is necessary to review the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection and highlight areas where improvement of function occurs with HAART.
What lessons have we learned? Proceedings of the 9th European AIDS Conference, Warsaw, 25 - 29 October 2003Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 15 –20 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE MARCH 2004 15 CONFERENCE COMMENTARY What lessons have we learned? Proceedings of the 9th European AIDS Conference, Warsaw, 25 - 29 October 2003 Des Martin, MB ChB, MMed, FCPath, DTM&H, DPH University of the Witwatersrand and SA HIV Clinicians Society These days there seems to be a plethora of meetings devoted to HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) therapiesMany of us suffer from 'conference fatigue'; however, each meeting seems to make progress in understanding the various facets relating to these complicated therapiesOld items such as when to initiate therapy continue to appear on the ..
Author Adrienne WulfsohnSource: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 21 –27 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE MARCH 2004 21 1INTRODUCTION (a) It is important to remember that survivors of sexual assault are patients like any other patients but with special needsThe basics of good clinical medicine should therefore apply including good history taking, clinical examination, special investigations and appropriate management. (b) Every patient should be seen and managed in a comfortable and compassionate environment. (c) The appropriate Crime Kits for the medico-legal examination should be available in hospitals and doctors' rooms, as South African Police Service (SAPS) personnel do not always have easy, quick access to the kitsThis ..
Updated guidelines for the use of rifamycins for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients taking protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorsSource: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 28 –32 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... MARCH 2004 THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE 28 Two previously published reports provided guidelines for managing the pharmacological interactions that can result when patients are treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection together with rifamycins for tuberculosis (TB).1, 2 This article presents current data pertaining to interactions between these agents, with recommendations for their use from a group of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) scientists and outside expert consultants; these include initial recommendations for the PIs lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir, and fosamprenavir (a phosphate ester prodrug of amprenavir). The ..
Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 34 –39 (2004)More Less
Improved prospects for expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings are the result of reduced costs of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), increased availability of cheaper generics and access to funds such as the Global Fund to Fight Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), private foundations, non-government organisations (NGOs), corporate initiatives, government budgets and other multilateral and bilateral donors, with the prospect of additional funding from the United States Millennium Challenge Account. <br>Increased affordability together with the political will has seen a rapid increase in the number of countries introducing or scaling up ART programmes. <br>The paper aims to elucidate the requirements for ART programmes in resource-poor settings by using existing pilot experience and lessons learnt with particular regard to: <ul> <li>The feasibility of ART in resource-poor settings</li> <li>The different approaches being taken to delivery of ART</li> <li>The issues to be considered in scaling up ART provision</li> </ul>
Author Liesl GerntholtzSource: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 40 –43 (2004)More Less
South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of protection to people living with HIV / AIDS. Although the Constitution does not explicitly refer to HIV / AIDS , it does prohibit unfair discrimination on the grounds of disability. International jurisprudence has developed a broad definition of 'disability', which goes beyond so-called functional disability and has successfully accommodated HIV-related discrimination cases in Australia, Canada and the USA. It is likely that South African courts will ultimately do the same. <br>Employment legislation does refer specifically to HIV-related discrimination and prohibits unfair discrimination on the grounds of HIV status in the workplace. Pre-employment and employment HIV testing is prohibited, unless the permission of the Labour Court is obtained before to testing takes place. There are other laws, dealing with the provision of medical aid services, access to education and health care, that also prevent HIV-related discrimination. <br>Despite this, however, people with HIV / AIDS continue to suffer high levels of discrimination and prejudice. The disclosure of HIV status remains a fearful experience for many South Africans and may well be accompanied by violence and economic and social deprivation. <br>This article examines some of the most important cases that have come before the courts and other tribunals in 2003 and have sought to establish the rights of people with HIV / AIDS to live lives of dignity without fear.
Author Elsabe KlinckSource: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 44 –45 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... MARCH 2004 THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE 44 In no other field is the role of law and ethics as crucial as in the field of HIV / AIDS Health care professionals are in a unique situation, as both legal and ethical rules apply to a single HIV-related situation faced by themLegal and ethical rules sometimes overlap, but sometimes differThe South African Constitution and its Bill of Rights complicates matters further in that it is the highest law, and even ethical rules and rulings may be challenged as being justifiable limitations to human rights principles. Perhaps the ..
Author Leighton McDonaldSource: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2004, pp 46 –47 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... MARCH 2004 THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE 46 The Sunday Times Business Times published a supplement on the pharmaceutical industry on 30 November 2003This has been an extremely dynamic environment and one that will be affected by impending legislative changeThe objective of the survey was to provide some insight into the current status of the industry - special attention was paid to costs of medication, generic medication and antiretroviral therapyThis article aims to provide a summary of the publication and provide background information where necessary. Generic medicines are copies of branded (original) medicines that are produced and ..