n Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - HIV infection and the kidney : clinical




There is a wide clinical spectrum of renal disease in the course of HIV infection, which includes potentially reversible acute renal failure (ARF) (more recently known as acute kidney injury), electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, and intrinsic renal disease unrelated to HIV itself (e.g. co-morbid diabetes mellitus and hypertension). In addition, there is the group of HIV-associated glomerulonephropathies that may present with acute or chronic renal failure. Histologically, this group is divided into the 'classic' HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (HIV-FGS), HIV-associated immune complex disease (HIV-IC), and HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura / haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HIV-TTP / HUS). It is this group that is primarily implicated in the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the HIV-infected population.


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