1887

n South African Journal of Psychiatry - HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

USD

 

Abstract

HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i) asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii) mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii) HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/m_sajp/17/4/EJC66185
2011-12-01
2016-12-06
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error