SA Journal of Radiology - Volume 11, Issue 4, 2007
Volume 11, Issue 4, 2007
Author Savvas AndronikouSource: SA Journal of Radiology 11 (2007)More Less
It seems our journal is moving on so well that there are other parties who would like to join us. I have had requests motivating to have a section of the journal dedicated to a specific discipline. The first of these is Medical Oncology, who have funding, a high-profile experienced scientific editorial team and who are extremely interested. Other parties to consider within Radiation Science are nuclear medicine physicians, radiographers, radiation physicists and radiation biologists.
CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV / AIDS patients : original articleSource: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 76 –78 (2007)More Less
Involvement of the basal ganglia in AIDS encephalopathy is well documented in both adults and children. The pathology remains obscure. A type of inflammation with increased vascularity and disruption of the blood-brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV / AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature. At our institution over the past few years, we have noted an increasing number of adult AIDS patients with neurological complications, demonstrating BGC on CT examination. A retrospective review was done. Ninety-six adult cases were identified with BGC. Of these, 38 patients were HIV positive. Review of the 38 HIV-positive cases revealed that all of the patients presented clinically with encephalopathic symptoms, and all showed BGC associated with varying degrees of atrophy on CT scan. Reports of paediatric HIV cases with BGC and encephalopathy have suggested that the BGC is the end-stage phenomenon of a type of vasculopathy associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. The calcifications were seen to be progressive, as was the encephalopathy. The presence of BGC was deemed to be a poor prognostic indicator. Our study shows that BGC is not uncommon in AIDS encephalopathic adults. Further, since the radiological findings and clinical presentations in adults are the same as in children, we suggest that the pathological processes are also the same and that, in adults, as in children, BGC is the end-stage manifestation of an HIV vasculopathy.
Is anatomical distribution helpful for differentiating TB spondylitis from neoplastic causes of extradural spinal cord compression in children? A pilot study : original articleSource: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 80 –84 (2007)More Less
Background. Extradural spinal cord compression in children may be the result of infection / inflammation or neoplasia. It is vital to differentiate between the two as there is considerable difference in the management of these entities.
Objective. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there are significant differences between TB spondylitis and neoplasia causing extradural compression of the cord with regard to the anatomical distribution and compartmentalisation.
Materials and methods. A group of 16 children between the ages of 4 months and 14.2 years who had magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of the spine consecutively were analysed retrospectively.
Results. A wide variety of neoplasms demonstrated an anatomical site and compartment on MRI that is 'characteristic' of TB spondylitis.
Conclusion. Anatomical distribution alone does not assist in narrowing the differential diagnosis. There is still need for biopsy in children with extradural compression by a mass.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 86 –90 (2007)More Less
This article is a critical evaluation of the workflow within a film- and paper-based imaging department. It also illustrates how all the factors culminate to produce poor patient care and decreased productivity. Practical examples are provided within the Tygerberg Hospital scenario. The effect of international trends on the workflow within an imaging department of the future is described. Lastly, the reasons why an integrated PACS-RIS (Picture Archiving and Communication System - Radiological Information System) solution can provide a solution for the future is discussed.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 92 –94 (2007)More Less
Williams-Beuren syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by the deletion of multiple genes on chromosome 7. Many patients are identified through the presence of dysmorphic features and associated cardiac abnormalities. We report two cases demonstrating supravalvular aortic stenosis (a common feature of Williams syndrome) and coarctation of the aorta on computed tomography (CT) aortogram.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 96 –98 (2007)More Less
The term superficial siderosis is used to describe the haemosiderin deposition on the surface of the brain, spinal cord, brainstem and cranial nerve leptomeninges following recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. The concern is the cytotoxic nature of the haemosiderin on the underlying tissue causing slow but progressive and irreversible neurological dysfunction. Removal of the source of bleeding has little effect on the progression of clinical deterioration but halting the chronic subarachoid haemorrhage will reduce the iron load in the CSF and hence the cytotoxic risk. We present a case of superficial siderosis presenting with hearing loss and cerebellar signs highlighting the imaging findings.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 101 –102 (2007)More Less
Objectives: This is a good example with interesting imaging of a condition which rarely presents in adulthood.
Methodology: Case was described and a review and short summary of the literature was done.
Conclusions: The complete resection of choledochal cysts is mandatory because of risk of malignant transformation.
PET/CT-positive brown tumour - a potentially misleading finding in the evaluation of a patient for malignant primary tumour or metastases : case reportSource: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 103 –104 (2007)More Less
Brown tumours are the end stage of primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clinically, brown tumours most often manifest as slowly growing, painful masses. These tumours can behave aggressively and be destructive. We report a patient with high accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) in brown tumours as the potential cause of false-positive results in the evaluation of a patient for malignant primary tumour or metastases.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11 (2007)More Less
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11 (2007)More Less
Scapholunate instability (SLI) (also known as scapholunate dissociation or rotary subluxation of the scaphoid) is caused by a tear in the interosseous ligaments of the lunate, scaphoid and the capitate bone with a tear in the dorsal radiocarpal ligaments by acute dorsifexion injury or fractures of the distal radius. The patient complains of wrist pain, weakness of grip and a clicking sensation in the wrist.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 11, pp 108 –109 (2007)More Less
Radiological features of simple (unicameral)bone cysts, South African Journal of Radiology, 11(3) 2007, p.63 : erratumSource: SA Journal of Radiology 11 (2007)More Less