n South African Journal of Surgery - Renal arteriovenous fistula : a rare complication of electro-hydraulic lithotripsy : case report




Renal arteriovenous fistula (rAVF) is an uncommon condition, usually iatrogenic and in most cases caused by percutaneous renal needle biopsy. This is a report of rAVF following flexible ureteroscopic electro-hydraulic lithotripsy of a lower pole renal calculus and its subsequent management. A high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of this rare complication, which is easily treated by radiological intervention.


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