While the orthopaedic surgeon is recognised as playing an important role in the treatment of sports injuries, he is often brought in as a last resort by a sportsman and his physician. A plea is made for greater involvement of this speciality in primary sports care.
Muscles are machines which provide the power that is the basis for all vertebrate movement. The mechanical properties of an active muscle are dependent on many factors such as the shape and size of the whole muscle, its fibre type, fibre size and length, and the angle of the fibre-tendon attachment, as well as a variety of neural factors including cortical drive and motor unit recruitment patterns.
It is well documented that the size of the heart of an athlete is larger than the heart of his non-athletic counterpart. The enlargement represents true hypertrophy due to endurance exercise and constitutes a beneficial adjustment which characteristically regresses when exercise is discontinued.
The decision by Mary Decker-Slaney to continue running right up to the end of her pregnancy has focused attention on the pregnant runner. Ambitious ""Queen Mary"" will let nothing prevent her from returning to world middle-distance competition-not even the birth of her first child.
Muscle soreness that occurs during intense exercise is most often caused by muscular compression of capillaries and hence an inadequate blood flow within the contracting muscle. The resulting accumulation of protons, phosphate ions and nucleotides arising from inadequate removal of the products of energy production, all stimulate pain receptors in the muscle.
Modern equipment has revolutionized many sports, leading to major improvements in performance, radical changes in technique, an increase in the sportï¿½s popularity or safety, or in some cases a complete change in the structure of the sport. It is the purpose of this presentation to show the importance of equipment technology in modern Olympic sports and the competitive advantage that can be gained by equipment improvement.
A stress management programme for skydivers was developed from available literature. An experimental group (n =18) and control group (n =18) were used to evaluate an eight-week programme. Pre- and post-experimental psychological and physiological data proved the programme to be effective according to a variety of criteria.