The aim of this article is to discuss some of the more common acute injuries o f the shoulder complex. The injuries in each area will be discussed with respect to the mechanism of injury, clinical diagnosis, special investigations and management. The rehabilitation of acute injuries as well as the management of overuse injuries will be discussed in another paper in this journal.
The need for rugby training to evolve from a traditional art to a definite blend of science and art is long overdue. Regrettably it has taken a great deal of adverse media publicity on the unacceptable extent of serious injuries to convince the rugby fraternity that training of players and coaches has to become far more scientific.
The most common chronic shoulder injury in the athlete is the rotator cuff impingement syndrome. Pain presenting in the shoulder joint as a result of pathology in the rotator cuff represents a spectrum of clinical conditions which have been labelled as painful arc syndrome, rotator cuff tears, supraspinatus tendonitis and subacromial bursitis of the shoulder.
As the running revolution of the late 1970s took hold and as the literature descriptionbing its benefits grew, it was only natural that a counter-literature should develop. The major contention of this counter-movement is that running is detrimental because it is ""addictive"".
It is not uncommon that physiotherapists are sent referrals by medical practitioners asking for heat, short wave diathermy and infrared all in the same prescription, and this being directed towards the treatment of a sports related injury.
Arthroscopy has revolutionized our knowledge of the anatomy and pathology of shoulder problems. Arthroscopy has also vastly improved the accuracy of diagnoses, and instituted more specific treatment with much better outcome. A surgeon can not adequately deal with shoulder problems without a thorough working knowledge of shoulder arthroscopy.
A holistic approach to the rehabilitation of athleteï¿½s shoulder is presented. Factors that should be included in the assesment are posture, spinal and neuromeningeal mobility, physiological and accessory movements of all joints of the shoulder complex, stability tests, resisted movements, and synchrony of movement during active movements. Decrease of pain and control of inflammation are important initial goals of rehabilitation.
A questionnaire was sent to all bodybuilders affiliated to two Provincial Bodybuilding Associations. Out of the 80 completed returned questionnaires, 30 bodybuilders admitted to using anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). From this sample the AAS which were most frequently reported used were nandrolone decanoate (Deca-durabolinï¿½ ) (83%), oxymetholone Anapolon-50ï¿½ ) (63%), testosterone cypionate (Depo-testosterone ï¿½ ) (57%), ethylestrenol (Orabolinï¿½ )(47%), methenolone enanthate (Primobolanï¿½ ) (30%) and testosterone propionate (Sustanon-250ï¿½ ) (40%).