South Africa's population of Indian descent is at high risk of premature coronary artery disease, and in particular, diabetes mellitus. Putative risk factors that may be contributing to these chronic diseases include obesity, inactivity, poor lipid profiles, smoking, unbalanced dietary practices and stress. It has been hypothesised that it may be particularly important to document changes or secular trends in these risk factors in schoolgoing children of Indian descent. The fitness level of South African youth of Indian descent has been questioned for many years. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast the fitness levels of Indian high school boys (aged 15,16,17 and 18 years of age) in two cohorts: 1977 and 1997.
Although the eye may be injured by both direct and indirect trauma there are a number of protective mechanisms that exist which may prevent serious injury to the eyeball. Firstly the eye is embedded within the bony socket and is surrounded by thick buttresses of bone formed superiorly by the frontal, interiorly by the maxillary bones and nasally by the bridge of the nose.
Whether you are a starting-out runner or a seasoned champion, most of the principles involved in sensible training are the same. The only significant difference is the workload in terms of distance and speed. The overriding rationale of training is to place the body under gradually increasing amounts of appropriate stress in the work phase, with the system adapting and getting stronger during each rest phase in between.
The objective of this study was to ascertain the current knee injury prevalence among young basketball players in Cape Town. A retrospective survey was conducted in 2000 to capture information on injuries sustained during the season.
The objective is to descriptionbe the effect of participation in an ultra-distance triathlon on self-reported depression. This was a prospective pre- and post-race observational study. Triathletes were eligible to participate if they planned to participate in an ultradistance triathlon between June and December 2001.
Conditions which decrease the flexibility and normal range of movement of the cervical spine predispose towards spinal and spinal cord trauma. An example is congenital fusion synostosis of two or more vertebrae which has an incidence of 0,4 % to 0,7 % in the normal population.
The decision to return a rugby player to the playing field after concussion has traditionally been controversial and indeed challenging for the team physician. However, recent advances at the First International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Vienna 2001 and the release of the South African Rugby Guidelines on the Management of Concussion 2002, have resulted in a comprehensive systematic approach to concussion being developed that would benefit the rugby player and assist with management decisions.
The aim of this clinical review was to examine the problem of obesity in the context of energy balance, and specifically to examine the role of increased physical activity in altering energy balance in obese individuals. The control of obesity depends on a regulatory axis involving feedback control between: food intake, nutrient turnover, energy expenditure, and body fat stores.
Concussion is a significant problem in South African rugby and cause for concern. With an increasing number of participants coupled with increasing competition at all levels of the game, concussion is a critical issue that requires attention if serious injury, disability and death are to be prevented.