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- Volume 17, Issue 1, 2005
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 17, Issue 1, 2005
Volumes & issues
Volume 17, Issue 1, 2005
Author J. AdnoSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 2 –6 (2005)More Less
Young female ballet dancers attending professional schools or dancing in companies where body thinness is much admired, restrict their food intake and are highly active. The unusual eating habits and levels of activity of some of these dancers have been related to lack of menstrual cycles.
Augmentation of the acute phase response in vitamin C-supplemented ultramarathoners : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 4 –10 (2005)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> To investigate the effects of vitamin C (VC) supplementation on the alterations in systemic markers of inflammation as a result of participation in a 90 km down run from Pietermaritzburg to Durban in 29 subjects who completed the 1999 Comrades Marathon. <br><I>Interventions.</I> Runners were divided into groups receiving 500 mg/day VC (VC500; N = 10), 1 500 mg/day VC (VC1500; N = 12) or placebo (P, N = 7) for 7 days before the race, on the day of the race, and for 2 days following completion. <br><I>Main outcome measures.</I> Each subject recorded dietary intake before, during and after the race and provided 35 ml blood samples 15 - 18 hours before the race, immediately post race, 24 hours post race and 48 hours post race. These were analysed for full blood count, vitamins A, C and E, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), amyloid A, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations. All post race concentrations were adjusted for plasma volume changes. <br><I>Results.</I> Analyses of dietary intakes and blood glucose and anti-oxidant status on the day preceding the race and the day of the race excluded carbohydrate intake or plasma vitamins E and A as significant confounders in the study. Mean pre-race concentrations of serum vitamin C in VC500 and VC1500 groups (128 - 10.2 and 153 - 10.2 mol/l) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in the P group (83 - 10.8 mol/l) and confirmed the additional dietary VC intake of both groups. Serum CRP concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the VC500 group than in the VC1500 and P groups. This finding was supported by similar trends in serum amyloid A, plasma IL-6 and IL-8. When the data from the two VC groups were pooled and the vitamin intake in the placebo (N = 7) and VC (N = 22) groups compared, CRP concentrations in the VC groups were significantly higher at each of the post-race time points (p < 0.05). <br><I>Conclusion.</I> These data confirm previous findings of a trend towards an enhanced pro-inflammatory response following VC intake > 500 mg per day.
Author H. Grant-WhyteSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 8 –9 (2005)More Less
Sport. What is sport? My Oxford Concise Dictionary defines sport as ""amusement, diversion, fun"". Today, let us face it, it is a huge industry, employing highly paid performers who compete with one another not only sportingly but financially. To win means wealth, to lose poverty. The result is an intensification of competition, a development which has permeated sport from top to bottom, from international professional contests to games in junior schools.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 11 –18 (2005)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> There is a real risk of transmitting HIV through open wounds during participation in sport. The aim of this study was to investigate athlete s knowledge and attitudes towards HIV transmission in a competitive sport environment how their sporting codes, demographics, knowledge and interaction with colleagues influenced their attitudes. <br><I>Design.</I> A questionnaire was administered to elite athletes (N = 575) competing in 11 sport codes including high, medium and low-risk sports, and undergraduate students (N = 46) from a Sport Science Department. Athletes from all economic backgrounds, who competed at national, provincial or at first-division level, were included in this study. The questionnaire was distributed during national tournaments and training sessions. <br><I>Results.</I> Sixty-three per cent of athletes believed that a risk of HIV transmission exists in sport participation. Fiftyeight per cent believed that they had a right to know if a teammate/opponent was HIV-positive, and 62% believed that all athletes should be tested for HIV. Fifty per cent of the respondents indicated that they would participate against individuals who were HIV-positive. Most athletes (88%) believed that more education on HIV transmission in sport was needed and 58% felt that HIV should be a notifiable disease in sport. Forty-six per cent of the athletes indicated that they would participate in competition even though they were HIV-positive. <br><I>Conclusion.</I> The threat of infection or transmission did not deter athletes who were afflicted or unafflicted with HIV from participating in competitive sports.
Author H.H. SchomerSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 12 –14 (2005)More Less
The application of exercise as a therapeutic technique has its roots in antiquity. However, it is only fairly recently that systematic studies have been undertaken to investigate the role of exercise in controlling and modifying physiological, biochemical and psychological processes of human behaviour.
Author T. NoakesSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 15 –19 (2005)More Less
The remarkable safety of exercise rehabilitation programmes is not a chance event. Nor has it been easily achieved. It has resulted from careful attention to certain guidelines that have been established over the years. The following guidelines are those used by the Western Cape Cardiac Rehabilitation Programme and are based on the approach developed by Dr. Terry Kavanagh in Toronto.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 19 –26 (2005)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> To generate isokinetic neck strength norms for schoolboy rugby forwards. <br><I>Design.</I> Two hundred and eight schoolboys (17.21 - 1.03 years, mean - standard error of the mean (SEM), chosen from a population of under-19 first and second XV rugby players, participated in this study. The subjects were assessed anthropometrically and isokinetically according to a set protocol. The isokinetic assessment of neck strength was performed with the use of a specially designed stabilising chair and halo. The subjects performed a single maximal exertion set, consisting of 3 repetitions, through each of the cervical spinal movements in the sagittal and frontal planes. The data were analysed statistically according to positional categories (front-, second-, and back-row forwards), and were used to generate Stanine tables of normative data concerning the force characteristics of the cervical spine. <br><I>Results.</I> The front-row forwards produced the largest amounts of force during the measurement of peak torque flexion (PTF = 30.00 - 1.39 Nm) and peak torque extension (PTE = 55.26 - 1.42 Nm). Conversely, the second-row forwards performed the best during the measurement of lateral flexion peak torque to the right (PTR = 53.71 - 1.51 Nm) and lateral flexion peak torque to the left (PTL = 52.92 - 1.63 Nm) in the frontal plane. The front-row forwards were the most powerful in all the neck movements measured (power generated at 0.2 seconds during flexion (PowF) = 101.54 - 6.43 W, power generated at 0.2 s during extension (PowE) = 167.31 - 8.03 W, power generated at 0.2 s during lateral flexion to the right (PowR) = 211.92 - 7.44 W, and power generated at 0.2 s during lateral flexion to the left (PowL) = 194.81 - 7.73 W). However, further analysis of the data revealed that few statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) existed between the positional categories for the measured variables of peak torque, power generated at 0.2 of a second, peak torque to body mass ratio and cervical range of motion. <br><I>Conclusion.</I> It appears that the various positional categories have not undergone the expected neck strength adaptations to meet the unique requirements of each position. The generation of neck strength normative data allows for the effective and quantified comparison of neck strength variables, enabling more effective injury prevention and rehabilitation.
Author Shuaib ManjraSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 31 –32 (2005)More Less