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- Volume 17, Issue 3, 2005
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 17, Issue 3, 2005
Volumes & issues
Volume 17, Issue 3, 2005
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... All health practitioners involved with either high-performance sport or the promotion of physical activity will have been asked at some stage about their views on nutritional supplements. Unfortunately media hype has created the impression that nutritional supplements can provide a quick alternative to systematic training and sound, balanced eating principles. This view, often driven by companies that stand to make money out of the sales of their supplements, has created confusion among the public. An article in this issue (entitled 'A practical guide to the use of nutritional supplements in South Africa' by Kohler, Meltzer, Jakoet and Noakes), attempts to ..
Author Demitri ConstantinouSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... This issue of the Journal coincides with the 11th Biennial International Congress of the South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA) being held in Johannesburg. The academic programme is excellent, and the faculty of presenters from FIMS (International Sports Medicine Federation), the ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) and others from around the world will showcase the many aspects of relevance to physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists, sports scientists, physiotherapists, biokineticists, dieticians, psychologists, chiropractors, podiatrists and other professionals involved in sport and sports medicine. SASMA has continued to contribute to the sporting population by means of service provision from experts in the ..
Cricket injuries - a longitudinal study of the nature of injuries to South African cricketers : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 4 –10 (2005)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> To determine the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite cricketers during a 6-season period (1998 - 2004). <br><I>Design.</I> Physiotherapists and doctors working with the provincial and national teams completed a questionnaire for each cricketer who presented with an injury in order to determine: (i) anatomical site of injury; (ii) month of injury during the season; (iii) the diagnosis; (iv) mechanism of injury; (v) whether it was a recurrence of an injury sustained in a previous season; (vi) whether the injury had recurred again during that season; and (vii) biographical data. <br><I>Results.</I> The 1 606 injuries occurred primarily during firstclass matches (32%), limited-overs matches (26%) and practices (27%) during the early part of the season. The lower limbs (49%), upper limbs (23%) and back and trunk (23%) were most commonly injured. Acute injuries made up 66% of the injuries, while chronic and acute-on-chronic made up 12% and 22%, respectively. Soft-tissue injuries were predominantly muscle injuries (41%). Bowling (40%) and fielding (33%) accounted for the majority of the injuries, while the primary mechanism of injury was the fast bowler's delivery and follow through (25%) and running, diving, catching and throwing the ball when fielding (23%). <br><i>Conclusion.</I> The results indicate a pattern of cause of injury which coaches and medical support staff need to be aware of for long-term injury prevention. Fast bowlers are at the greatest risk of injury, while all cricketers are at risk of sustaining acute soft-tissue injuries to the lower limb, as well as role-specific injuries.
A comparison of the nature and severity of injuries in younger and older professional soccer players : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 12 –18 (2005)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> To compare the nature and severity of injuries in young and older professional soccer players in South Africa, and to determine whether the number and nature of injuries sustained increases with age. <br><I>Design.</I> A prospective, descriptive study of 40 professional players under the age of 22 years and 40 professional players over the age of 26 years was undertaken over 2 seasons. <br><I>Setting.</I> Medical support facilities at practices and matches, for a professional soccer team and a national junior team. <br><I>Interventions.</I> Data on injuries were collected on a standardised form and included the anatomical site of injury, mechanism of injury, whether the injury was acute or recurrent, and the number of days absent from training or games due to injury. <br><I>Main outcome measures.</I> Comparison of the number, nature and severity of injuries and the duration of training and playing time missed through injury in the 2 groups. <br><I>Results.</I> Seventy-eight injuries were recorded in the younger age group compared with 123 in the older age group. The younger players sustained significantly more slight injuries (59%) that did not necessitate time off training than the older players (p < 0.031). Young players required on average 38.8 days to recover from each injury while the older players took only 26.4 days. The ankle was the most common site of injury. Recurrent injuries were most common in the older age group. <br><I>Conclusion.</I> The incidence of soccer-related injuries rose with age. Most injuries were minor. Information on the nature and severity of injuries can be used to develop appropriate preventive programmes.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 19 –30 (2005)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> Cortisol concentration at rest seems to be an insensitive marker for endocrine stress status in athletes. Therefore, the aim of this review was to identify potentially more sensitive parameters which could be used to monitor endocrine stress status during chronic exercise training. In order to gain more insight from studies not directly related to exercise science, this review also includes findings from studies investigating responses to psychological stress in healthy individuals and in patients suffering from chronic disease. <br><I>Data sources.</I> Medline. <br>Study selection and data extraction.</I> Key words (e.g. exercise stress, psychological stress, overtraining, chronic fatigue, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), chronic inflammation). Only studies published in peer-reviewed journals included in the International Science Index were used. Care was specifically taken not to over-represent any particular research group's articles. <br><I>Data synthesis.</I> A qualitative synthesis was done, based on all papers included in the review. <br><I>Conclusions.</I> Four main conclusions were drawn: (i) instead of considering changes in mean cortisol concentration over time for a group of athletes, high- and low-responders should be identified at baseline and their responses considered separately; (ii) it may be more useful to express cortisol concentration as a ratio to either testosterone or DHEA-sulphate (DHEAs) concentration than assessing either the catabolic or anti-catabolic variable on its own; (iii) in response to stress, cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) do not seem to play major roles in the regulation of circulating concentrations of bioactive cortisol and testosterone respectively; and (iv) it is crucial to allow sufficient recovery from the most recent exercise session to ensure that proper resting blood samples are obtained for assessment of chronic effects of training on endocrine status.
The prediction of endurance performance from work rates at fixed blood lactate concentrations is a mathematical not a physiological phenomenon - a novel hypothesis : review articleAuthor I. CookSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 31 –45 (2005)More Less
Traditionally it is accepted that physiological mechanisms underpin the oft-demonstrated highly significant relationship between work rates at fixed blood lactate concentrations of 4 mmol.l<sup>-1</sup> (WR<sub>fblc</sub>) and endurance performance (EP). The objective of this paper was to suggest an alternative nonphysiological mechanism for the ability of WR<sub>fblc</sub> to predict EP. Important observations are that WR<sub>fblc</sub> occur at a constant percentage of maximum work rate (WR<sub>max</sub>) in trained athletes and there are high correlations between WR<sub>fblc</sub>, WR<sub>max</sub> and EP. These observations suggest that WR<sub>fblc</sub> is a marker of WR<sub>max</sub>. Using data from published reports, the association between WR<sub>fblc</sub> and EP is dramatically reduced after removing the effect of WR<sub>max</sub>. Furthermore, the between-subject variation in slopes (first derivative of exponential plus constant function) at fixed blood lactate concentrations is significantly associated with WR<sub>fblc</sub>/WR<sub>max</sub> ratios with exponential but not linear relationships using the same blood lactate concentration - work rate data. This paper argues that WR<sub>fblc</sub> is related to EP through its relationship with WR<sub>max</sub>, and contends that the relationship between WR<sub>fblc</sub> and EP is not causal because of physiological mechanisms, specifically skeletal muscle metabolism. The WR<sub>fblc</sub>- EP relationship is rather the result of the peculiar properties of the exponential relationship between blood lactate concentrations and incremental work rate. Re-analyses of existing data sets with valid measures of WR<sub>max</sub> and homogeneous and heterogeneous samples in terms of endurance performance, to confirm or reject this hypothesis, are warranted.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Introduction Rectal prolapse is commonly seen at the extremes of age groups. In adults, it is almost exclusively seen in females. The aetiology of rectal prolapse in adult males is not completely understood. A case of rectal prolapse in a young adult male patient is presented and a likely unique aetiopathology is discussed. Case history A 39-year-old male Caucasian patient presented with a history of rectal bleeding and faecal incontinence. The patient was previously healthy and had no relevant past medical or surgical history. Specifically, there was no history of constipation, straining, chronic cough, psychiatric illness, rectal or pelvic trauma, ..
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17, pp 48 –52 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Sportspersons should ensure that their decision to use a dietary supplement is a safe one. Unlike medicines, which are regulated by the Medicines Control Council, there is currently no governing body to control and regulate the supplement industry in South Africa. As a result many supplements may contain banned substances, and there is a chance that not all the ingredients in the supplement are accurately listed on the accompanying label. National and international sporting bodies place the responsibility for using supplements on the sportsperson. The legal clause 'strict liability' means that the sportsperson is responsible for any and all ..
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 17 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 52 SAJSM VOL 17 NO. 3 2005 Erratum The publishers apologise for technical errors beyond our control that occurred at the final/printing stage of publication affecting certain articles in the last two issues of the Journal (vol 17 no. 1 April 2005, and vol. 17 no. 2 June 2005). The four defaulting fonts involved were the plus/minus sign (?), the degree sign (?), the inverted commas, and the apostrophe. To remedy this, corrected PDF files and 50 printed copies of each affected article, on high-quality matt paper, will be dispatched to the Editor-in Chief, Professor Mike Lambert. The publishers ..