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- Volume 19, Issue 1, 2007
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 19, Issue 1, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 19, Issue 1, 2007
Author M.C. SiffSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 2 –6 (2007)More Less
One of the most neglected aspects of sports training is flexibility or suppleness. Considerable time is devoted to improving strength, stamina, style and speed, but little or no attention is paid to flexibility training. Almost all sportsmen commence a training session with what they term a ""warm-up"". Too often this warm-up is based on archaic, traditional methods which do not include appropriate or scientific flexibility exercises.
Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among adolescent squash players in the Western Cape : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 3 –8 (2007)More Less
Objective. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among adolescent squash players in the Western Cape.
Design. A retrospective descriptive survey was conducted during the first week of May 2006. Three schools were randomly selected from a list of the top 10 schools in the Western Cape high school squash league of 2005, with 106 squash players aged 13 - 18 years participating in the study.
Setting. Injury data were collected for 106 players at three schools randomly selected from a list of the top 10 schools in the Western Cape high school squash league of 2005.
Interventions. An adapted structured self-administered questionnaire based on a previously validated musculoskeletal injury questionnaire was used to collect the data.
Main outcome measures. The main variables investigated were prevalence, mechanism and injury site of musculoskeletal squash injuries.
Results. Twenty-nine per cent of the players (N = 31) reported that they had sustained a squash injury in the 4 weeks prior to data collection. A total of 48 injuries were reported by the injured players. The most common injuries included those of the thigh (19%), shoulder (13%) and lower back (13%). Forty-two per cent of players reported no specific mechanism of injury, but experienced pain not associated with a traumatic injury only while playing squash.
Conclusion. A relatively high prevalence of squash injuries was found. This preliminary study serves as a baseline for future research. Areas for further investigation were identified and this could lead to the implementation of preventive programmes and education to prevent injuries among adolescent squash players.
Author E.A. Du PlessisSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 7 –12 (2007)More Less
Die steroidehormone is 'n groep hormone wat oor dieselfde basiese struktuur beskik en wat ""n gemeenskaplike voorloper naamlik cholesterol besit. Sintese van bg. hormone vind in die adrenale korteks, testes, ovaria en plasenta plaas. Met betrekking tot die bespreking is ons geintereseerd in die androgene.
The quadriceps angle and the incidence of knee injury in Indian long-distance runners : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 9 –11 (2007)More Less
Objective. To investigate the incidence of knee injuries in runners and to determine the proportion of injuries involving abnormal quadriceps (Q)-angles.
Design. One hundred male Indian runners between the ages of 25 and 65 years from 5 athletic clubs in Durban volunteered to participate in the study. The Q-angle was measured using a goniometer. Other relevant information was obtained using a validated questionnaire. The data were analysed by comparing measured Q-angles with 'normal' values of Q-angles obtained from the literature. A paired t-test at a probability of 0.05 was used.
Setting. Data were collected at club meetings.
Main outcome measure. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the proportion of runners with abnormal Q-angles. Thereafter the rate of knee injuries in runners with abnormal Q-angles was determined.
Results. Data from 88 runners were usable. Fifty-one per cent of the runners sustained knee injuries. Fifty-eight per cent of the sample had abnormal Q-angles. Sixty-seven per cent of the runners with abnormal Q-angles sustained knee injuries.
Conclusion. More runners with abnormal Q-angles sustained knee injuries. There is a need to determine reference values for Q-angles for the South African population, the proportion of the population that present with abnormal Q-angles, and the reasons for this.
The epidemiology of golf-related injuries in Australian amateur golfers - a multivariate analysis : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 12 –19 (2007)More Less
Objective. To perform an epidemiological study in order to determine the golf-related injury locations, injury rates and possible risk factors for golf injury in amateur golfers across Australia.
Method. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of Australian golf club members was used to collect data for the study. Chi-square testing was used to evaluate the association between golf injury and each possible risk factor at univariate level. All the possible risk factors were further examined in multivariate analysis using logistical regression.
Results. There were 1 634 golfers included in the present study. Of these, 288 reported having had one or more golf-related injuries in the previous year. The most common injury location was the lower back (25.3%), followed by the elbow (15.3%) and shoulder (9.4%). The most common injury mechanism was poor technique in execution of the golf swing (44.8%). Age, warm-up status, conditioning habits, wearing a golf glove/s and injury acquired in other sports / activities were significantly associated with risk of golf injury (p < 0.05). Equipment use such as type of golf club shaft used, type of shoes used and other factors studied were not statistically significant.
Conclusion. The most injured sites identified in this study were the lower back, elbow and shoulder respectively. Risk of injury during golfing varied according to age group, warm-up status, conditioning habits, whether the player wore a golf glove/s, and whether the golfer had been injured in other activities.
Author T. NoakesSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 14 –16 (2007)More Less
Few working days in my life pass by without me being reminded that, to many of the so-called ""academics"" who run and administer Universities, sport is not considered to be a really important function of the University. Plato in fact said ï¿½ ""Avoid exercising either mind or body without the other; and so preserve an equal and healthy balance between the two"".
Author C. GermondSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 17 –18 (2007)More Less
Travel fatigue and home ground advantage in South African Super 12 rugby teams : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 20 –22 (2007)More Less
Objectives. Studies have shown the existence of a significant home ground advantage in a range of sports. The aim of this study was to determine whether home performances of the South African teams during the 1996 - 2005 seasons were different before touring to Australia and New Zealand, compared with the home matches played after the 4 - 5-week tour. The question was relevant because this competition places unusual demands on the players. For example, the duration of the tournament is 12 weeks, during which time the South African teams travel across 37.3 ± 2.5 time zones as they play 11 matches. Therefore, any home ground advantage may be negated by travel fatigue.
Outcome measures. The mean points difference was calculated for home fixtures for four South African teams both prior to and following touring during the competitions from 1996 to 2005. Play-off matches were excluded from analysis. Performance was defined as a positive points difference (points difference = points 'for' minus points 'against').
Results. The first finding of the study was that a home ground advantage did indeed exist for all the teams during the tournament (points difference of 6.6 ± 17.4 (N = 664 matches) home vs. -6.8 ± 17.3 points away (N = 656 matches) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the mean 'home' points difference for all the South African rugby teams either before (1.9 points, N = 96 matches) or after (2.3 points, N = 107 matches) touring overseas in the Super 12 competition.
Conclusion. The findings suggest that in this tournament unsuccessful campaigns on the part of South African teams could not be attributed to travel fatigue.
Ultrasound study of the asymptomatic shoulder in patients with a confirmed rotator cuff tear in the opposite shoulder : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 23 –28 (2007)More Less
Objective. To document the incidence of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in patients with a confirmed symptomatic tear in the opposite shoulder, and to identify ultrasound findings that may distinguish symptomatic from asymptomatic tears.
Design. When patients are referred for an ultrasound examination for the confirmation of symptomatic rotator cuff tear the opposite shoulder is often used for comparison. However, patients often have a similar tear on the asymptomatic side. Fifty patients with a confirmed symptomatic rotator cuff tear and an asymptomatic shoulder on the opposite side were chosen for inclusion. The patients were examined using a Siemens Sonoline Elegra 7.5 MHz linear multi-frequency probe. The appearance of the rotator cuff, long head of the biceps and the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa (SASD bursa) were documented. The antero-posterior (AP) dimension of the supraspinatus muscle and fat between the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles were measured, which indicated if a tear was acute or chronic. The width and length of the rotator cuff tear were measured.
Setting. Division of Sports Medicine, University of Pretoria.
Results. Fifty-four per cent of the asymptomatic shoulders had tears. We found that the symptomatic tears were larger, appeared more chronic and had an associated biceps tendinopathy and glenohumeral joint effusion.
Conclusion. As other authors have found, the high incidence of asymptomatic tears indicates that rotator cuff tears can be regarded as a natural correlate of aging and that bilateral tears are common. Initial treatment should be conservative, but larger tears may benefit from early surgery before becoming chronic and causing glenohumeral dysfunction.