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- Volume 19, Issue 3, 2007
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 19, Issue 3, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 19, Issue 3, 2007
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19 (2007)More Less
I was recently asked for my opinion about a proposal which was submitted to an administrative body which controlled high-performance sport. This proposal described a 'patented' method which purported to be able to optimise physical training, physical therapy, weight loss, injury detection and treatment and other health care applications.
Author Clinton GahwilerSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 68 –73 (2007)More Less
Background. The 2004 Athens Olympics represented the greatest opportunity for psychological preparation yet afforded a multicode South African team. A coordinating psychologist was appointed a year before the event, with access to financial and other resources.
Aim. The purposes of this paper are fourfold : (i) to describe a 5-stage model used for the psychological preparation of the 2004 South African Olympic team; (ii) to report on the athletes and their management teams' perceptions of its efficacy; (iii) to describe the perceived positive and negative determinants of these same subjects' state of mind at the Olympics; and (iv) to make recommendations for the existing model's further improvement.
Results. The psychological preparation was well received, with almost all athletes and coaches requesting an expansion thereof in the future. Recommendations are made for the model's improvement, particularly for its ongoing implementation throughout the 4-year Olympic cycle.
Physical profiles of elite male field hockey and soccer players - application to sport-specific tests : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 74 –78 (2007)More Less
Background. The physical demands of field hockey and soccer, based on match analysis, are comparable. As a consequence many exercise scientists and coaches have started to use the same type of field tests for hockey and soccer for the purposes of talent identification and training prescription. The validity of this practice is unknown and the data supporting the similarity of the physical attributes of soccer and hockey players are lacking.
Objectives. To compare the physical attributes of elite South African hockey and soccer players.
Methods. Elite hockey players (N=39: 22+3 years; mean + standard deviation) and soccer players (N=37; 24+4 years) completed a set of physical tests including a 10 m and 40 m sprint test, a repeated sprint test (sprint fatigue resistance), a 1RM bench press and a push-up test.
Results. There were no differences in the 10 m (1.8+0.1 s both groups) and 40 m (5.4+0.2 s v. 5.3+0.2 s; hockey v. soccer) sprint times and distance run in the repeated sprint test (754+14 m v. 734+51 m). The hockey players were stronger (82+16 v. 65+13 kg) and did more push-ups (49+12 v. 38+10 push-ups) than the soccer players.
Conclusions. It is acceptable to use the same type of sport-specific tests to measure sprint capacity and sprint fatigue resistance for hockey and soccer players. However, it is questionable whether the normative data derived for upper body strength for soccer players are relevant for hockey players, and vice versa.
Seasonal incidence and nature of cricket injuries among elite South African schoolboy cricketers : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 80 –84 (2007)More Less
Objective. To identify the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite South African schoolboy cricketers.
Design. Data were collected retrospectively using a questionnaire. Cricketers recalled all injuries from June 2003 to May 2004.
Setting. The population consisted of 196 cricketers representing all provincial teams in the 2004 under-19 Coca-Cola Khaya Majola cricket week.
Results. Sixty-seven injuries were sustained by 196 cricketers, with an incidence of 34.2% during the period under review. Injuries occurred during matches (71.6%), throughout the season due to repetitive stresses sustained during matches and practices (14.9%), during practice (11.9%) and during other forms of training (1.5%). Bowling accounted for 50.7% of the injuries, fielding 32.8%, batting 14.9% and the remaining 1.5% occurred while warming up or training. The primary mechanism of injury occurred during the delivery stride and follow through of the fast bowler (34.3%). Eighty seven per cent of the injuries were first-time injuries while 13% were recurrent. Most injuries (40.6%) reported were severe and took the cricketers more than 21 days to recover. Cricketers were more prone to injury during December and January.
Conclusion. The incidence and nature of injuries have been recorded and potential risk factors for injury have been identified. It is suggested that coaches and cricketers partake in continuous educational processes that focus on all the physical, mental and technical components necessary for success in cricket, with a national database.
Changes in neutrophil count, creatine kinase and muscle soreness after repeated bouts of downhill running : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 86 –93 (2007)More Less
Objective. A primary objective was to examine circulating neutrophil count after repeated bouts of downhill running. An additional aim was to determine creatine kinase (CK) levels during the initial 12 hours, after repeated DHRs.
Design. Eleven healthy, untrained Caucasian males performed 2 x 60 min bouts of DHR (-13.5%), spaced 14 days apart, at a speed equal to 75% VO2max on a level grade. Blood was collected before, after, and every hour for 12 hours, and every 24 hours for 6 days. Absolute neutrophil count, CK, and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.05) with appropriate post hoc tests.
Results. There were no significant differences in neutrophil count (p=0.24) during the 12-h period following run 1 (mean±se, 6.45±0.29 10-9.l-1) versus run 2 (5.96±0.09 10-9.l-1), or during the 24-h periods for run 1 (3.48±0.09 10-9.l-1) or run 2 (3.47±0.09 10-9.l-1). During the initial 12-h period, there was a significant interaction effect (p=0.0001) for CK with differences between bouts seen between 3 - 12 h; differences remained evident at 24 h and at 96 - 144 h. In all muscle groups, DOMS was significantly lower after run 2 compared with run 1.
Conclusion. The lack of significance in neutrophils, as well as the early onset of difference in CK between run 1 and run 2 were attributed to the type of eccentric protocol used. It was proposed that future studies be more cognisant of whether the eccentric mode is predominantly low-intensity long-duration or high-intensity short-duration.
Maintenance of hyperglycaemia does not improve performance in a 100 km cycling time trial : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 94 –98 (2007)More Less
Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether the elevated plasma glucose oxidation rate (~ 1.8 g.min-1) in the latter stages of prolonged exercise in subjects in which hyperglycaemia (+ 10 mmol.l-1) is maintained via a glucose clamp, improves 100 km cycling time-trial (TT) performance.
Design. Seven endurance-trained male cyclists (22+4 yrs) participated in this randomised crossover trial. On two occasions, separated by 7 - 10 days, subjects performed a self-paced TT in the laboratory. During one TT blood glucose was maintained at a euglycaemic concentration of + 5 mmol.l-1 (ETT) and during the other, at +10 mmol.l-1 (HTT). Each TT was interspersed with 5 X 1 km high-intensity periods (HIP) and 4 X 4 km HIP, in an attempt to mimic the variable intensity of competitive road races. Subjects were instructed to complete the TT in the 'fastest time possible', taking the 9 HIP (21 km) into consideration.
Results. There were no significant differences between ETT and HTT in overall time (143:09+7:14 v. 142:23+7:16 min:s), mean power (275+39 v. 279+39 W) and heart rate (160+9 v. 158+11 beats.min-1).
Conclusion. Time trial performance over 100 km is not improved by maintaining a hyperglycaemic (10 mmol.l-1) blood glucose concentration.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 100 –101 (2007)More Less
To the Editor: We would like to comment on the review article by Shuttleworth-Edwards et al. 'Ethically we can no longer sit on the fence - a neuropsychological perspective on the cerebrally hazardous contact sports', published in the July edition of your Journal.
Overall, this article is well researched and written. However, as well as highlighting a number of important observations made in this article, we would like to emphasise the progress that has been made in developing a community-based return-to-play concussion programme in South Africa, thus illustrating that a high level of care can be sourced for patients with concussion wishing to return safely to collision and contact sports.
Optimal application of neurocognitive testing in concussion management : a professional dilemma : letter to the editorSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp 101 –104 (2007)More Less
To the Editor: We appreciate the response of sports physicians Kohler and Patricios to our review article 'Ethically we can no longer sit on the fence : A neuropsychological perspective on the cerebrally hazardous contact sports.' They have clearly articulated a position in respect of optimal concussion management that in broad terms is highly commensurate with the recommendations arising out of our review. Abreast of our own country-wide initiative, we are strongly supportive of their determination 'to drive a nationally-focussed programme of international calibre'. Indeed we are aware that they are providing a crucial educative role concerning the utility of computerised neuropsychological testing and the importance of obtaining baseline data in the South African sports concussion arena. The last thing they are doing is sitting on the fence.