Many coaches steadfastly believe that improvements in performance are directly related to the volume of work performed during training, and that a swimmer can only reach her/his full potential by undertaking extremely long and arduous training sessions. Competitive swimmers, for example, often train between two and four hours each day swimming up to 20,000 metres, with an energy expenditure exceeding 4,500 kcal/day.
AII fields on which matches were played were graded according to a checklist with a maximum score of 40. The number of injuries and of player hours for each field was determined, and the injury incidence per 1000 hours was calculated.
The purpose o f this article is (1) to identify the physiological factors associated with successful endurance performance and (2) provide training guidelines and specific workouts for athletes competing in strenuous events such as cycling (40 km time-trial and over), distance running (5 km and longer), the standard-distanee, triathlon, and distance-swimming races.
The important motto mens sana in corpore sano reminds us that a healthy mind and body is the ideal armour with which to tackle life. Too many South Africans, however believe that a healthy mind can be cultivated through mere passive recreation.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission has placed limits on the use of caffeine in athletes following evidence that it has ergogenic properties and can be abused in gaining unfair advantage in athletic events requiring stamina.
Portage forms an integral part o f some long distance kayak races. The metabolic demands of portaging a single person racing kayak were investigated in 15 subjects who regularly participated in kayak marathons.
The psychological problems experienced by sports people are often attributed to irrational thinking. The sportman's cognitions greatly influence his emotions, as cognitions, emotions and behaviour are interdependent. RET is based on the fact that
There has again been a justifiable concern from many interested groups for the safety of rugby players. Some sections of the medical profession on media are always ready to create sensation or denigrate rugby or preferably both by headlining any serious injury whilst ignoring similar injuries occuring in activities like motor cycling and other sports.
Rugby being an amateur game largely precludes any off season training program, and the best that can be hoped for is that 6 weeks before the new season begins, the players will put in some form of aerobic training, the activity of choice being running.