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- Volume 20, Issue 1, 2008
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 20, Issue 1, 2008
Volumes & issues
Volume 20, Issue 1, 2008
Author L.L. SirkinSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 2 –5 (2008)More Less
Tennis enthusiasts, regular players, not so regular players, and older Moms and Dads, are all on the courts trying to emulate the greats at Wimbledon and those at the more recent 1-Million Dollar Tournament at Sun City. This will bring about an increase in tennis injuries to your consulting rooms or to the various sports injury ciinics. Many of the tennis injuries are predictable and some are even preventable.
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20 (2008)More Less
While I was training in the gym last week I counted 23 out of the 49 people in the gym at that time with earphones and music devices. The people using these devices ranged from young, body-conscious teenagers, to older folk, old enough to be their grandparents. Whatever they were listening to remained a mystery but a safe bet would be anything from classical to golden oldies to hip-hop. There is no doubt that this new exercise-associated behaviour is here to stay. There were a few false starts in the 1980s and 1990s with appearance of the popular Sony walkmans, but they were too bulky and were not widely used during exercise. Furthermore, it was mostly the younger generation that used these music players in public.
Effectiveness of early quadriceps exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction : reviewSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 4 –14 (2008)More Less
Objective. To systematically review the published information regarding the effectiveness and safety of early postoperative quadriceps muscle exercise training on pain, joint laxity, function and range of motion in postoperative anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction adult patients.
Data sources. Five databases (CINAHL, PEDro, Pubmed, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library) were searched for studies published from January 1990 to May 2007.
Study selection. Publications describing research into the effectiveness of early quadriceps exercises after ACL reconstruction were included. A total of three eligible articles met the inclusion criteria.
Data extraction. A review of the three eligible studies was undertaken to describe the key study components. The PEDro Scale was used to determine the methodological quality of the selected trials and the level of evidence of all the eligible studies was categorised according to the evidence hierarchy by Lloyd-Smith. Relevant data were extracted by the two reviewer groups to reduce bias.
Data synthesis. Due to study heterogeneity a meta-analysis could not be conducted. Effect sizes were calculated provided that sufficient data were provided. Outcome measures included range of motion (ROM), functional performance, pain and knee laxity. The methodological quality of the studies did not vary considerably across the studies and the average PEDro score was 66%. Marginal significant differences were noted in knee ROM at 1 month postoperatively, pain day 1 postoperatively, knee laxity and subjective evaluation of function at 6 months postoperatively.
Conclusion. Early quadriceps exercises can be performed safely in the first 2 postoperative weeks, but clinically significant gains in ROM, function, pain and knee laxity were not evident. Further research should include standardised interventions, measurement time frames and outcome measurement tools to allow for a meta-analysis to be conducted.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 6 –10 (2008)More Less
The purpose of this statement is to alert organisers of cross-country, road and long distance running races of the procedures they will be expected to follow in order to reduce the likelihood that heat injury (heat exhaustion or heatstroke) will occur during these races and to lay down specific guidelines for the treatment of runners with heat injury. It should be noted that these guidelines are not foolproof.
Author M.C. SiffSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 12 –15 (2008)More Less
The common belief of ""the more training the better"" was bred in ancient Sparta and fostered by generations of military instructors. This unfortunate principle continues to be imposed on numerous sportsmen and soldiers, since its proponents maintain dogmatically that the optimum training load is the maximum training load a person can endure. Many of the more enlightened coaches and instructors have criticised this archaic system and believe a person commences training at low intensity and continually increases intensity and duration within his limits of endurance and the time available.
A conservative programme for treatment of anterior knee pain in adolescents : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 14 –20 (2008)More Less
Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 2½-week conservative rehabilitation programme in addressing anterior knee pain in adolescents.
Design. Subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (N=12) and an experimental group (N=18). The experimental group was subjected to a 2½-week strength, flexibility and neuromuscular rehabilitation programme. Both groups were tested before and after the 2½ weeks and the experimental group also 1 month after the post-test.
Results. The experimental group reported significant (p < 0.01) improvement in pain (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Patient-Specific Functional Scale) and condition (Scale for Change in Condition). The experimental group tested significantly (p < 0.01) better for strength (quadriceps and hamstrings), flexibility (quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius) and neuromuscular control (Willknox wobble board and Bass test of dynamic balance). The control group experienced no improvement in any of the tests.
Conclusions. The 2½-week rehabilitation programme for addressing anterior knee pain in adolescents proved to be effective. The study demonstrated good retention of improvements and even further improvement after cessation of the programme. Advantages are the short duration and the fact that patients are familiarised with a home programme which they are likely to continue with. Although not addressed in this study, literature indicates that restoration of neuromuscular control might be the main contributing factor for the success of the programme.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20 (2008)More Less
There is increasing medical critic against the dangers of boxing injuries which could be severe and even fatal. Whereas some medical pratitioners are in favour of banning professional boxing entirely, others are asking for tighter control to prevent acute and serious injuries.
Sources of variance and reliability of objectively monitored physical activity in rural and urban Northern Sotho-speaking blacks : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 21 –27 (2008)More Less
Objectives. We investigated the sources of variance and reliability in an objective measure of physical activity for a 14-hour and 4-day monitoring period.
Design. A convenience sample of rural (N=31) and urban (N=30) adult, Northern Sotho-speaking blacks was recruited. Physical activity was assessed for 8 consecutive days using a uni-axial accelerometer. Physical activity indices were total counts, average counts, inactivity (< 500 counts) moderate-1 activity (500 - 1 951 counts), moderate-2+vigorous activity (≥ 1 952 counts), and were expressed per hour or per day as required.
Results. Accelerometry data from 41 subjects (23 males, 18 females) complied with selection requirements and were analysed for variance distribution and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)). For the 14-hour monitoring period variance was distributed as follows: intra-individual (71 - 82%), inter-individual (3 - 18%) and hour-of-day (2 - 14%). Attenuated ICCs ranged from 0.31 to 0.75 (median: 0.70). Variance for the 4-day monitoring period differed from the 14-hour monitoring period: inter-individual (47 - 58%), intra-individual (43 - 51%) and day-of-week (0 - 6.5%). Attenuated ICCs ranged from 0.27 to 0.84 (median: 0.79). Irrespective of the monitoring period, total counts, average counts and moderate-2+vigorous activity tended to be the most reliable measures requiring the fewest number of monitoring periods.
Conclusions. These findings provide an insight for understanding how variance is distributed in objectively measured activity patterns of a South African sample and show that reliable measures of adult physical activity behaviours require 18 - 128 hours and 3 - 44 days, depending on the monitoring period, physical activity index, residence status and sex.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 28 –31 (2008)More Less
Objective. Athletes frequently report training to music, yet there have been relatively few studies that have addressed the benefit of exercising with music.
Design. Volunteer men and women (N=30), aged between 18 and 40 years, performed an initial familiarisation session. Part of this session involved the measurement of maximal oxygen consumption. With at least a 48-hour intervening period, this was then followed by a first 20-minute submaximal cycling session, at 80% of maximal oxygen consumption. At least 48 hours later a second submaximal cycling session was performed. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Group A cycled without music and group B cycled with music for the first submaximal cycling session. Subjects underwent the same testing procedure for the second submaximal cycling session, but this time group A cycled to music and group B cycled without music. Subjects served as their own controls.
Setting. The study was performed in the physiology exercise laboratory, at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Main outcome measures. During the submaximal sessions heart rate, perceived exertion (Borg scale) and plasma lactate concentration were assessed. Subjects completed a post-test questionnaire once both submaximal cycling sessions were completed.
Results. There were no significant differences in physiological variables (change in plasma lactate and heart rate), nor were there any significant differences in Borg scale ratings when the subjects cycled with and without music. However, according to the post-test questionnaire 67% of subjects identified the cycling session with music to be easier than the session without music.
Conclusion. Listening to music while performing submaximal cycling resulted in no physiological benefit. Yet, the cycling session done in conjunction with music was deemed, by the majority of the subjects, to be easier than the cycling session without music.
Physical fitness, nutritional habits and daily locomotive action of 12-year-old children with different body mass index : original research articleAuthor S. KamtsiosSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 32 –36 (2008)More Less
Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical fitness, daily nutritional habits and locomotive behaviour among pupils with varying body mass index (BMI) in the 5th and 6th grades of primary school.
Design. The sample consisted of 480 pupils (229 boys and 251 girls), who participated in specific Eurofit tests and completed questionnaires probing their physical activity and nutritional habits. They were divided according to their BMI into normal, overweight or obese children.
Main outcome measures. 18% and 8% of the pupils were categorised as overweight and obese, respectively.
Results. From the data analysis (two-way ANOVA), with BMI and gender as independent variables, it was found that the obese and overweight pupils had lower performance in long jump, in 30-m speed and in 20-m shuttle run. They adopted sedentary daily habits, such as many hours of TV watching and unhealthly nutritional habits.
Conclusions. The results of this study support the need for intervention at school through physical education and health education lessons, to inform pupils about the health risks associated with limited physical activity and unhealthy nutritional habits. Another goal should be to motivate and create behaviours that are conducive to better lifestyle habits.