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- Volume 20, Issue 3, 2008
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 20, Issue 3, 2008
Volumes & issues
Volume 20, Issue 3, 2008
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20 (2008)More Less
The South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA) is undergoing a renaissance with a realignment of their vision and a drive to boost membership. The necessity of having a strong sports medicine association is probably more important now than ever before. The sad deterioration of the standard of sport in South Africa and the attempt by some politicians and administrators to hijack sport to fulfill their own agendas is at a critical level.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 64 –70 (2008)More Less
As with any contact sport, rugby union has a high risk of injury. The majority of injuries result from contact phases of play such as the tackle, taking the ball into contact, the scrum, the lineout and the ruck and maul. Many techniques associated with a reduced risk of injury can be taught. The need for coaches to emphasise correct technique is extremely important and one of the few possible modes to reduce injuries, particularly non-fatal catastrophic injuries to the head, neck, brain and spine. This paper provides evidence of safe techniques during the contact phases of the game (tackling, taking the ball into contact, scrum setting and engagement, lineouts as well as rucks and mauls). Examples are also given to show that safe techniques often are the most effective techniques from a performance perspective.
Profile of medical and injury consultations of Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad, Athens 2004 : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 72 –76 (2008)More Less
Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to document the nature of medical and injury consultations of the athletes and officials of the South African Team at the 2004 Olympic Games, and to provide data for planning future events.
Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece.
Methods. Total number of consultations and diagnoses were ascertained from medical logs and patient files which were completed daily by the members of the medical team. A retrospective clinical audit of medical records was then undertaken and the data were then compared with similar data collected during the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Acute and chronic-soft tissue (muscle strain, ligament sprain, tendon injury, contusion or laceration) and bony injury were analysed in terms of nature of injury, grading of severity and anatomical region injured.
Main outcome measures. Number of consultations due to medical complaints or injuries among athletes and officials.
Results. A total of 180 medical consultations were logged during the time in Athens while 348 consultations were logged in Sydney. The daily consultation rate was 6 per day in Athens compared with 13 per day in Sydney. In Athens, 84% of consultations were with athletes and the remainder (16%) with officials - this was similar to Sydney. The most common medical complaints in Athens were dermatological (16%), ENT (13%), and respiratory (8%) in nature, which contrasts with the profile of consultations in Sydney (ENT 18%; neurological system 16% and respiratory 16%). Acute injury and chronic injury accounted for 26% and 14% of consultations respectively. In Athens, the most common acute and chronic injuries were soft-tissue injuries. The most common acute injury regions were the foot and ankle (25%), upper leg (17%) and knee (17%). A total 77% of acute injuries were grade I, 17% grade II and 6% grade III in severity. The most common chronic injury regions were foot and ankle (32%), lumbar spine (32%), and shoulder (11%). These injury profiles were similar to those documented in Sydney 2000.
Conclusions. Injury and illness complaints of the South African team were fewer in Athens 2004 compared with those documented during Sydney 2000. This can be attributed to local environmental conditions and travel across time zones. These data should be useful for planning medical services for future multi-coded events. The analysis of the nature of consultations suggests that it should be a prerequisite for physicians travelling with a multi-coded events team to have broad knowledge of both medical and injury management of athletes. Specifically, a sound knowledge of the management of soft-tissue injury is an important prerequisite for the personnel of the medical team.
Medication use by Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad : a model for quantity estimation for multi-coded team events : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 78 –84 (2008)More Less
Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to report the medications used by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa at the 2004 Olympic Games and to provide a model for the estimation of quantities to be used for planning support to future events.
Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece.
Methods. The names of the medications, including the dosage and quantity of medications dispensed, were recorded in the pharmacy stock control book at the South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece. Retrospective review of patient files and medical encounter forms was also undertaken to check against the pharmacy stock control book to ensure complete data capture of dispensed medications.
Main outcome measures. Quantities of medications consumed during the observation period. The units of medication consumed per travelling team member were calculated by dividing the number of units (tablets, capsules, tubes, inhalers, bottles and ampoules) used during the trip by the total number of travelling team members.
Results. Complete records of medications included in the travelling pharmacy are described. Quantities of medications included ranged from single units to 2 250 units and percentage use of various medications varied from 0% to 100% of stocks. Units per team member ranged from 0 to 9.43. Medications were consumed from all categories of agents. The most utilised agents included the analgesics, musculoskeletal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents as well as certain vitamin and mineral supplements.
Conclusions. This study describes the consumption of pharmacological agents by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa during the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. It also provides a model to assist with the estimation of quantities of medications to be included in the travelling pharmacy for future international multi-coded sports events.
Effects of timing of pre-exercise nutrient intake on glucose responses and intermittent cycling performance : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 86 –90 (2008)More Less
Objective. To evaluate the effects of two different pre-exercise feeding schedules (15 minutes and 60 minutes prior to exercise) of a mixed-nutrient nutritional bar on blood glucose levels and subsequent intermittent, high-intensity cycling performance.
Methods. Ten moderately trained athletes participated in this counterbalanced, crossover, repeated measures study. Participants completed a 50-minute counterbalanced treatment intermittent exercise protocol. During one trial, participants consumed 400 ml water and a nutritional bar 15 minutes before the exercise session (15MPE). During another trial, participants consumed 400 ml water and a nutritional bar 60 minutes before the exercise session (60MPE). During a control trial (CON) participants consumed 400 ml water.
Results. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose response at rest or during exercise among the three treatments (CON, 15MPE and 60MPE). There were no significant differences in mean power (MP) between the three trials.
Conclusions. Pre-exercise nutrient feedings at 15 minutes or 60 minutes before exercise did not affect intermittent cycling performance or blood glucose concentration. These results suggest that the time of ingestion, within 1 hour prior to exercise, of a complex carbohydrate similar in composition and volume used in this study does not impact on performance.
Locomotor training as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with spinal cord injury - a case study : case studySource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 20, pp 91 –92 (2008)More Less