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- Volume 21, Issue 2, 2009
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 21, Issue 2, 2009
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Volume 21, Issue 2, 2009
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21 (2009)More Less
Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport - the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2008 : consensusSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 36 –46 (2009)More Less
This paper is a revision and update of the recommendations developed following the 1st (Vienna) and 2nd (Prague) International Symposia on Concussion in Sport. (1, 2) The Zurich Consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the original Vienna and Prague documents and to develop further conceptual understanding of this problem using a formal consensus-based approach. A detailed description of the consensus process is outlined at the end of this document under the "background" section (See Section 11). This document is developed for use by physicians, therapists, certified athletic trainers, health professionals, coaches and other people involved in the care of injured athletes, whether at the recreational, elite or professional level.
While agreement exists pertaining to principal messages conveyed within this document, the authors acknowledge that the science of concussion is evolving and therefore management and return to play decisions remain in the realm of clinical judgment on an individualized basis. Readers are encouraged to copy and distribute freely the Zurich Consensus document and / or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) card and neither is subject to any copyright restriction. The authors request, however that the document and / or the SCAT2 card be distributed in their full and complete format.
Complement, immunoglobulin and creatine kinase response in black and white males after muscle-damaging exercise : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 47 –52 (2009)More Less
Objectives. To determine the effect of eccentrically biased exercise and ethnic group on circulating levels of complement, immunoglobulin creatine kinase. Seven black and 8 white males (18 - 22 years), active but untrained, participated in the study. Subjects performed a 60-minute downhill run on a treadmill (gradient -13.5%) at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2 peak on a level grade. Venipunctures were performed before, immediately after and then at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours afterwards. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, serum complement (C3, C4) and immunoglobulin (total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA) concentrations were compared using a repeated measures ANOVA.
Results. There was an interaction (p=0.0055) and ethnic group effect (p<0.0001) for CK activity with consistently higher levels in the black group. CK increased over time after the run, peaking at 12 h for both groups. C3, C4, total IgG, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA were significantly higher (ethnic group effect, p<0.001), and IgG2 significantly lower (ethnic group effect, p<0.001) in the black group. Significantly higher resting concentrations of total IgG (+21%), and IgG1 (+32%) were observed in this group.
Conclusions. CK was significantly elevated in the black group although the relative response to exercise in whites was higher, suggesting greater muscle damage. Differences in the concentration of complement proteins and immunoglobulins suggest a heightened immunological / inflammatory milieu in the circulation of the black group. The performance and health implications of this finding warrant further investigation.
Comparative characteristics of elite New Zealand and South African u/16 rugby players with reference to game-specific skills, physical abilities and anthropometric data : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 53 –57 (2009)More Less
Objective. A comparative study of elite New Zealand and South African u/16 rugby players with special reference to game-specific skills, physical abilities and anthropometric data.
Design and settings. A battery of tests was used to obtain information concerning a group of elite New Zealand players (N=24) and two elite South African groups (N=64). Information was obtained for game-specific skills, physical abilities, and anthropometric data.
Results. The New Zealand players outperformed the South African players in game-specific tests, physical abilities, and anthropometric measurements. Where the South African groups performed better than the New Zealand group, it was not practically significant.
Conclusion. South African rugby authorities should be cognisant of the areas where South African u/16 rugby players were outperformed by their New Zealand counterparts, and consequently develop specific development programmes to address these shortcomings.
Are point-of-decision prompts in a sports science and medicine centre effective in changing the prevalence of stair usage? A preliminary study : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 58 –64 (2009)More Less
Objective. To determine the impact of a signed intervention on promoting stair versus lift usage in a health and fitness facility.
Design. A 3-week observational study in which a simple time-series design of collecting data before, during and after the introduction of an intervention was used.
Setting. The Sports Science Institute of South Africa (SSISA) : a 5-storey building with a centrally located lift lobby and internal stairwell.
Method. Observers were placed unobtrusively on the ground floor, with good visibility of lift/stairwell, to observe ascending movement of students, staff, tenants, visitors and patients4 hours/day (07h00 - 09h00, 16h00 - 18h00), 4 days/week for3 weeks. During week 2, motivational signs were displayed on the wall next to the lift and stairs and on the floor leading to the stairwell. In week 3, signage was removed. Factors considered in predicting stair use were gender, phase of intervention, and whether persons were staff/students or visitors.
Results. A total of 4 256 person-counts were recorded. Prevalence of stair use increased from 43% before the intervention to 53% during the intervention to 50% after the intervention. Odds of using the stairs during the intervention increased by 45% (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25- 1.68) (p<0.00001), were 41% higher for staff/students compared with visitors (p<0.00001) and were 55% greater for women (p<0.00001). These effects did not change significantly after the intervention and stair use remained modestly higher than before the intervention.
Conclusion. Signed intervention produced significant increases in stair usage during and after the intervention. These findings support the effectiveness of point-of-decision prompts for changing behaviour, and highlight potential factors influencing the impact of such messages.