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- Volume 21, Issue 4, 2009
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 21, Issue 4, 2009
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 4, 2009
Author LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21 (2009)More Less
Who could have predicted at the start of 2009 that sex verification in sport would have received so much front page news all over the world? As with all matters complicated, following discussion and an exchange of views, there are always more questions than answers. In particular, when biological facts are made murky by cultural and sociological influences the number of unanswered questions increase exponentially.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 147 –150 (2009)More Less
The verification of gender eligibility in sporting competition poses a biological and management challenge for sports science and medicine, as well as for sporting authorities. It has been established that in most sporting events, the strength and power advantage possessed by males as a result of the virilising action of hormones such as testosterone produce significant advantages in performance. For this reason, males and females compete largely in separate gender categories. Controversies arise as a result of intersex conditions, where the classification of individuals into male or female is complex. The present review provides the historical context to the debate, identifying the origins of gender verification as a means to deter cheating. It describes how various testing methods have been attempted, including physical examinations of genitalia, molecular techniques including genetic screening, and complex multidisciplinary approaches including endocrinological, genetic and gynaecological examination. To date, none appear to have provided a satisfactory resolution to the problem, and appear instead to have unfairly discriminated against individuals as a result of inappropriate application of testing results. Sporting authorities have formulated position stands for the management of such cases, but there is not absolute agreement between them and little evidence to support whether intersex individuals should or should not be allowed to compete in female categories.
Injury patterns of South African provincial cricket players over two seasons : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 151 –155 (2009)More Less
Objective. To determine the incidence and nature of injury patterns in elite cricketers over two seasons.
Methods. Physiotherapists and / or doctors working with 4 provincial teams completed a questionnaire for each cricketer who presented with an injury during the 2004 - 2005 (S1) and 2005 - 2006 (S2) cricket seasons. This was done to determine: (i) the anatomical site of injury; (ii) the month of injury during the season; (iii) the diagnosis using the OSCIS injury classification system; (iv) the mechanism of injury; (v) whether it was a recurrence of a previous injury; (vi) whether the injury had recurred again during the season; and (vii) biographical data.
Results. The results showed that 180 injuries (S1 - 84; S2 - 96) were sustained. On average the teams spent 2 472 hours on matches, 4 148 on practices and 1 612 on fitness training during the two-season period. The injury prevalence was 8% per match, while the injury incidence was 30/10 000 hours of match, practice and training time, with the match incidence being 74 injuries / 10 000 hours and the training incidence 15 injuries/10 000 hours. Bowling (29%), fielding and wicket-keeping (27%) and batting (19%) accounted for the majority of injuries. The occurrence of injuries was predominantly to the lower limbs (S1 - 45%; S2 - 42%), back and trunk (S1 -19%; S2 - 19%), upper limbs (S1 - 19%; S2 - 22%), head and neck (S1 - 6%; S2 - 3%), and related to illnesses (S1 - 11%; S2 - 14%). The injuries occurred primarily during first-class matches (39%), limited-overs matches (22%), and practices (17%), and some were of gradual onset (20%). Acute injuries comprised 78% of injuries. The majority of injuries were first-time injuries (76%), with 11% and 14% recurrent injuries from the previous and current seasons, respectively. The major injuries during S1 were haematomas (19%), muscle strains (17%) and other trauma (14%), while during S2 the injuries were primarily muscle strains (16%), other trauma (20%), tendinopathy (16%) and acute sprains (15%). The primary mechanisms of injury occurred in the delivery stride when bowling (19%) and overbowling (7%), on impact by the ball when batting (11%), and on sliding to field the ball (6%).
Conclusion. The results indicate a pattern of cause of injury, with the fast bowler most likely to sustain an acute injury to the soft tissues of the lower limb while participating in matches and practices during the early part of the season.
Effectiveness of the cricket transformation process in increasing representation and performance of black cricketers at provincial level in South Africa : original research articleAuthor M. Sharhidd TaliepSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 156 –162 (2009)More Less
Objectives. This study investigates the effectiveness of the cricket transformation process in firstly increasing representation of black players and secondly improving performance of black players in the South African 4-day provincial competition between the1996 / 1997 and 2007 / 2008 cricket seasons.
Methods. Cricketers were categorised as white, black African or coloured / Indian. Whenever the category 'black' is mentioned alone, it refers to black African and coloured / Indian. All data were obtained from www.cricinfo.com.
Results. The number of white players decreased and the number of black African and coloured / Indian players increased between the 1996 / 1997 and 2007 / 2008 seasons. White batsmen had significantly higher batting averages than black Africans, but were only better than coloureds / Indians in the 2001 / 2002 season. Coloureds / Indians had better batting averages than black Africans in all seasons except 2001 / 2002 and 2004 / 2005. There was a significant improvement in the batting averages of coloureds / Indians but not of whites and black Africans over the 12 seasons. White bowlers had significantly better bowling averages than coloured / Indian bowlers for seasons 2002 / 2003, 2004 / 2005 and 2006 / 2007. There were no significant differences in the bowling averages between white and black African players and between coloured / Indian and black African players over the 12 seasons.There was a tendency towards a decreased bowling performance for coloureds / Indians, whereas there was no significant decrement in the bowling performance for whites and black Africans over the 12 seasons.
Conclusion. The increase in the number of black cricketers performing according to standard suggests a reasonable successful transformation process. However, representation and batting performance of black African batsmen remain a concern.
Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer players in Johannesburg east district : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 163 –166 (2009)More Less
Objectives. Soccer is one of the sports in South Africa which has seen an increase in the participation of youth and adult female players. The aim of this study was to determine point and 1-year prevalence, profile of injuries that affect female soccer players, associations between injuries and player position, age, use of equipment, frequency of play, and training duration.
Methods. A retrospective questionnaire-based descriptive survey of 103 first team high school female soccer players in the Johannesburg east district was conducted.
Results. The 1-year prevalence for the participants who reported injuries was 46% (N=47) and the point prevalence was 33% (N=34). From these, a total of 78 and 42 injuries for the 1-year and point prevalence respectively were reported. An extended duration of skills (p=0.0001) and fitness (p=0.02) training in this population reduced the likelihood of incurring an injury. The older the participants, the more chance there was of sustaining injuries (p=0.01). The participants who wore shin guards were less prone to shin/leg injuries (p=0.01), the relative odds being 0.35. The midfielders had more foot and toe injuries than the other players (p=0.05). Starting age (p=0.78), frequency of play (p=0.83), wearing of shoes (p=0.54) and stretching had no influence on injury. The knee and ankle were the main locations of injury, with defenders and midfielders mostly being injured.
Conclusion. A decrease in the duration of training for both skills and fitness and not wearing shin guards are risk factors for injury in female soccer players in high school. The profile of injuries and the risk factors determined from this study do not differ from the studies done in male adolescent and adult soccer players.
Perceived exertion influences pacing among ultramarathon runners but post-race mood change is associated with performance expectancy : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp 167 –172 (2009)More Less
Objectives. This study investigated whether post-race mood changes among ultramarathon runners are associated with perceived exertion or the discrepancy between their actual and predicted performance times.
Methods. Eight runners completed the Puffer ultramarathon, which is a challenging 73 km mountainous race across Table Mountain National Park in South Africa. Each runner completed a series of profile of mood state questionnaires (POMS) 2 days before the race (baseline), on the morning of the race (pre-race) and immediately after the race (post-race). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at 13 points during the race using the Borg 6-20 scale. The accuracy of performance expectations was measured as the difference between runners? actual and predicted race times.
Results. Average completion time was 11:31:36±00:26:32 (hh: mm:ss), average running speed was 6.4±2.2 km.hr-1 and average RPE was 14.1±2.0. Increased POMS confusion was found before the race (33.30.7 v. 37.1±5.2, p=0.014; baseline v. pre-race). Post-race increases in POMS total mood disturbance (TMD) were found (168.3±20 v. 137.5±6.3, p=0.001; post race v. baseline) characterised by decreased vigour (43.3±4.0 v. 33.5±7.0, p=0.008; baseline v. post race), increased confusion (33.3±0.7 v. 38.5±4.8, p=0.006; baseline v. post race) and increased fatigue (37.8±4.8 v. 53.8±7.3, p=0.0003; baseline v. post race). A linear increase in RPE was found during the race (r=0.737, p=0.002). The magnitude of their post-race mood change (r=-0.704, p=0.026) was not found to be associated with runners' average RPE but was found to be negatively correlated with accuracy of the performance predictions. A time series analysis indicated that POMS TMD would have taken 142±89 min to recover.
Conclusions. The results show that RPE influences the way ultramarathon runners pace themselves more than performance expectancy but performance expectations have a greater influence on post-race mood. The magnitude of post-race mood change is associated with the extent of discrepancy between runners' predicted and actual performance. This has implications for designing appropriate goals and pacing strategies for ultraendurance athletes.