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- Volume 22, Issue 2, 2010
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 22, Issue 2, 2010
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 2, 2010
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 22 (2010)More Less
Once again, after the successful hosting of the football World Cup, sport has shown how it can unite a nation, independently of the politicians. As we bask in the afterglow of the World Cup it is worth contemplating how the buzz which was experienced in the country for those four glorious weeks can be maintained.
Attitudes and perceptions towards performance enhancing substance use in Johannesburg boys high school sport : original research articleSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 22, pp 32 –36 (2010)More Less
Introduction. The environment of youth sport in South Africa has transformed considerably, where adolescent athletes are faced with more pressure from coaches, peers and parents to perform well. Some of the athletes are using nutritional supplements or prohibited means such as doping to cope with these pressures and gain an edge in competition.
Objectives. In view of the lack of literature investigating the use
Methods. The design of the study was cross-sectional and used a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of participants was obtained from male adolescent high school athletes involved in 1st and 2nd high school sports teams in Johannesburg boys high schools. Participants were invited to volunteer to participate in the study. Questionnaires were completed under conditions that were similar to an examination situation. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results. The majority (91%) of the athletes indicated a belief that the number of athletes using PES in sport is increasing. Eighty-four per cent of them felt that there was pressure placed on them to use PES to win. Only 55% of respondents believed that doping tests would prohibit the use of banned substances and 91% did not believe that the sale of prohibited substances should be banned. The majority (88%) believed there is a need for further education.
Conclusion. Although there is enormous pressure on high schoolboys to use PES, their knowledge is lacking, especially with regard to doping in sport.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 22, pp 38 –41 (2010)More Less
Background. It has been shown that there is an association between various genetic variants and Achilles tendon injuries as well as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Among other variants the BstUI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within the COL5A1 gene has been shown to be over-represented in asymptomatic participants when compared with those with chronic Achilles tendinopathy, and in asymptomatic female participants when compared with those with ACL ruptures. The male asymptomatic control participants in the ACL study, which were 10 years younger than previously investigated cohorts, had a distinctly different genotype frequency.
Aim. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the distribution of the COL5A1 BstUI RFLP in the combined asymptomatic participants without any known history of tendon injuries is age dependent, particularly among males.
Results. When the 265 male asymptomatic participants from all studies were pooled and divided into age-group tertiles, there was a significant linear increase in the CC genotype frequency (p=0.032) among the male age groups, with the youngest group having the lowest frequency (CC genotype frequency, 13%) and the oldest group having the highest (CC genotype frequency, 27%) frequency. There was however a similar CC genotype content in all three female (N=231) age groups (CC genotype frequency, 24 - 27%; p=0.795).
Conclusion. The practical implication is that the selection of asymptomatic groups is of critical importance when future studies of this nature are designed. Future research investigating this genetic variant as a risk factor for soft-tissue injuries should consider these findings when selecting asymptomatic participants.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 22, pp 42 –43 (2010)More Less
Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.
Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances.
Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total.
Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results should be examined to verify the forecasts.
Beneficial effects of exercise : shifting the focus from body weight to other markers of health : editor's choiceSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 22, pp 46 –49 (2010)More Less
Background: Exercise is widely promoted as a method of weight management, while the other health benefits are often ignored. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise-induced improvements in health are influenced by changes in body weight.
Methods: Fifty-eight sedentary overweight / obese men and women (BMI 31.8 (SD 4.5) kg/m2) participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise intervention (70% heart rate max, five times a week, 500 kcal per session). Body composition, anthropometric parameters, aerobic capacity, blood pressure and acute psychological response to exercise were measured at weeks 0 and 12.
Results: The mean reduction in body weight was -3.3 (3.63) kg (p<0.01). However, 26 of the 58 participants failed to attain the predicted weight loss estimated from individuals' exercise-induced energy expenditure. Their mean weight loss was only -0.9 (1.8) kg (p<0.01). Despite attaining a lower-than-predicted weight reduction, these individuals experienced significant increases in aerobic capacity (6.3 (6.0) ml/kg/min; p<0.01), and a decreased systolic (-6.00 (11.5) mmHg; p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.9 (5.8) mmHg; p<0.01), waist circumference (-3.7 (2.7) cm; p<0.01) and resting heart rate (-4.8 (8.9) bpm, p<0.001). In addition, these individuals experienced an acute exercise-induced increase in positive mood.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that significant and meaningful health benefits can be achieved even in the presence of lower-than-expected exercise-induced weight loss. A less successful reduction in body weight does not undermine the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise. From a public health perspective, exercise should be encouraged and the emphasis on weight loss reduced.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 22, pp 50 –51 (2010)More Less
There is a high incidence of injuries among gymnasts. This is not surprising given the highly repetitive nature of impacts associated with landings from dismounts and during floor routines. The majority of upper extremity stress fractures involve the distal radius. Sternal stress fractures are rare, with the only other similar type of injury being described in a 9-year-old gymnast who was training on the parallel bars when he sustained an acute posterior sterno-manubrial dislocation. Here is a description of a sternal stress fracture in a competitive gymnast.