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- Volume 23, Issue 1, 2011
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 23, Issue 1, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 1, 2011
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23 (2011)More Less
While chatting to Shelly Meltzer, head of the dietary practice at the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, I learnt about a new concept: the empty-basket or full-basket approach to managing athletes. Shelly used this term in describing the approach she is using when she consults with athletes about nutritional supplements.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 3 –8 (2011)More Less
Objectives. We determined the effect of three consecutive days of sub-maximal-intensity mountain biking (4.5 hours per day, ~64 km per day), on the sleep of ten healthy, trained male and female mountain bikers.
Methods. The sleep of the mountain bikers was assessed both subjectively (visual analogue scales and sleep questionnaires) and objectively (activity data logger) on each night of mountain biking and for seven nights when they were not cycling (pre-exercise, mean of seven nights). The cyclists' mood and muscular pain were assessed each night using visual analogue scales. The cyclists slept at home in their normal environment.
Results. There was no significant difference between the mountain bikers' muscular pain and mood (calm/anxious visual analogue scale) measured during the pre-exercise stage and their pain and mood measured on each of the mountain biking nights (p>0.05). However, compared with the pre-exercise stage, the mountain bikers reported that they were significantly more tired (tired/energetic visual analogue scale) on each night of cycling (p<0.01). The sleep of the mountain bikers was disrupted on the night of the third day of mountain biking only. On this night, compared with the pre-exercise stage, the mountain bikers reported that they woke up more during the night (double the number of times) (p<0.001), and an activity data logger recorded that they were awake for about half an hour longer during the night (p<0.05).
Conclusion. We have shown that three days of repeated, endurance sub-maximal mountain biking disrupted the sleep of the mountain bikers on the third night of cycling.
Heat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise in athletes with spinal cord injuries : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 9 –13 (2011)More Less
Background : The thermophysiology of athletes with spinal cord injuries (SCI) is not well understood. Spinal cord lesions impact muscle mass, thermoregulatory neural signals and circulatory function. Understanding SCI thermoregulation physiology would benefit exercise function. Therefore, this study was designed to describe heat storage in the upper and lower bodies of SCI and able-bodied (AB) athletes.
Procedure : Seven SCI and 8 AB athletes (matched for arm-crank VO2 peak) performed a ramp protocol in an environment similar to an indoor competitive environment (21°C±1.5°C, 55±3% relative humidity).
Results : SCI athletes experienced similar upper-body heat storage of 0.82±0.59 J.g-1 and lower-body heat storage of 0.47±0.33 J.g-1 compared with that of AB athletes at 0.80±0.61 J.g-1 and 0.27±0.22 J.g-1 for upper and lower body, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups for rectal temperature (Trec) or oesophageal temperature (Tes). However, mean skin temperature (Msk) was significantly higher for SCI throughout the exercise bout (p=0.006).
Conclusions : The results of this study suggest that SCI and AB athletes appear to thermoregulate in a similar manner, though SCI tend to store slightly more heat.
The potential market demand for biokinetics in the private health care sector of South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 14 –19 (2011)More Less
Objective : Biokinetics, a profession registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA), address inter alia chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL) with exercise as treatment modality. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the potential market demand for biokinetic services in the private health care sector of South Africa.
Methods : Data from a pharmaceutical benefit management system (PBM) were analysed to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases in the private health care sector for 2007. Telephonic interviews on a sub-sample of 50 biokineticists revealed the average number of patients that can be treated monthly per biokineticist. The number of biokineticists with active practice numbers was obtained from the Board of Health Care Funders (BHF).
Results : The results indicate that 47% (747 199/1 600 000) of the patients managed by the PBM are treated with medication for one or more CDL. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory medication (21%), medication for cardiovascular diseases (13%) and bronchodilators (11%) had the highest prevalence. The sub-sample of biokineticists indicated that one biokineticist can treat an average of 100 patients per month. The potential market demand calculated from the above numbers indicated that 7 472 biokineticists are needed in the private health care sector, while only 625 active practice numbers were registered with the BHF in 2007.
Conclusion : In conclusion, it is estimated that only 7.6% of patients with CDL can potentially be treated by the current number of registered biokineticists. Therefore an enormous market potential for biokinetics exists in the private health care sector of South Africa.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 20 –25 (2011)More Less
Finding the optimal nutrition regimen for enhanced recovery is fundamental in enhancing exercise training and performance. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for optimal recovery. Because muscle glycogen is the primary substrate utilised during high-intensity exercise, it must be replenished. Recent research has examined the effectiveness on recovery of adding protein to a post-exercise carbohydrate beverage. This review summarises and analyses the literature on nutritional strategies aimed at enhancing various indicators of post-exercise recovery: glycogen resynthesis, muscle damage and performance. Furthermore, the literature on Medline and Pubmed comparing the effectiveness of carbohydrate-only (CHO) beverage with a carbohydrate:protein (CHO:PRO) beverage on maximising recovery was reviewed. The methods and results of studies regarding post-exercise nutritional strategies for recovery were analysed. primary results of this review suggest that the optimal timing in regard to post-exercise nutritional strategies for maximal glycogen resynthesis is within the first 30 minutes after exercise. The literature suggests that 1.0 - 1.5 g.kg-1h-1 of carbohydrate ingested at 2-hour intervals after exercise for up to 6 hours may be optimal for recovery. The addition of protein to a post-exercise meal may supply additional amino acids necessary for muscle repair creating an anabolic condition.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 26 –29 (2011)More Less
Exercise training has proved to be a beneficial treatment for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) suffering from the symptom of intermittent claudication. The mechanism by which symptomatic improvement occurs is unclear. The review summarises the mechanism of the training response in patients with PAD, focusing on improvements in bloodflow as well as biochemical, muscle recruitment and psychological adaptations. Possible areas of future research are suggested.
Author Theresa MannSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23 (2011)More Less
The conventional approach in the field of exercise science is to report the response to interventions as the mean (average) of the intervention group. While the mean may be a convenient measure, it fails to consider the significant individual variation present in all aspects of human biology, resulting in findings that are at best simplistic and, at worst, misleading.