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- Volume 23, Issue 3, 2011
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 23, Issue 3, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 3, 2011
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23 (2011)More Less
The axiom 'you cannot manage what you don't measure' has been applied in business for several years. Although the origins of the phrase are not clear, it has been adopted as a general management principle in many different spheres of society. In the context of business this statement stresses the importance of collecting data about profits, staff productivity and consumer trends to ensure that the business adapts with the changing demands and is managed in an efficient way.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 68 –72 (2011)More Less
Objective. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) behaviour and menstrual disorders in a group of provincial-to-national level student netball players. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship between body composition, energy intake, DE and menstrual patterns in student netball players.
Methods. Twenty-six white female netball players from a South African university volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. Energy intake was assessed with 24-hour recalls and menstrual patterns were assessed with a menstrual history questionnaire. Players also completed an Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess DE behaviour.
Results. Collectively 14 players (54%) were identified with DE behaviour and scored above the designated cut-off score for the EAT-26 (≥20, N=3), the EDI Body Dissatisfaction subscale (≥14, N=7), the EDI Drive for Thinness subscale (≥15, N=3), and/or answered 'Yes' (N=8) to DE behavioural questions. Eight players (31%) reported menstrual irregularities during the past 12 months, of whom four (15%) also reported secondary amenorrhoea (absence of ≥3 consecutive menstrual cycles) during training. Five players (19%) presented with DE behaviour, menstrual irregularity and primary and/or secondary amenorrhoea. Reported energy intake was significantly lower in the players with menstrual irregularities and secondary amenorrhoea compared with the remaining players (p<0.05).
Conclusions. Top female student netball players may have suboptimal energy intakes and suffer from DE behaviour, menstrual irregularities and secondary amenorrhoea. Players and coaches should be aware of these risks to avoid related health and performance consequences.
Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among triathletes residing in the Western Cape : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 74 –79 (2011)More Less
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among Olympic and Ironman distance triathletes residing in the Western Cape.
Methods. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study design was conducted in Western Cape Province. Twenty-six triathletes registered with Triathlon South Africa were included. Percentage body fat was measured via multi-frequency bio-electrical impedance analysis and anthropometry. Dietary intake and supplement use were measured with an estimated 3-day food record and questionnaire.
Results. The mean age of the men and women was 38±7 and 38±10 years respectively. The mean amount of training per week for men and women respectively was 15±4 and 15±5 hours. The percentage body fat (%BF) of men and women was 13±4% and 21±6%, respectively. The mean dietary macronutrient intake for men and women respectively was for total energy intake 14 535±4 510 kJ and 9 004±2 369 kJ, carbohydrate intake 5.3±1.9 g/kg and 3.5±1.0 g/kg, protein intake 2.0±0.5 g/kg and 1.2±0.2 g/kg and fat intake 35±10% and 30±6% of total energy intake. Seventy-three per cent of the triathletes used over-the-counter dietary supplements.
Conclusion. Percentage body fat of the men and women was at the upper end of the range associated with elite athletes. Overall the athletes had a fairly good intake of macro- and micronutrients. Inadequate habitual carbohydrate intake was attenuated by the vast majority of the triathletes taking additional carbohydrate supplementation. Various supplements were used widely among the athletes.
Comparison of clinic-based versus home-based balance and agility training for the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 80 –83 (2011)More Less
Objective. To compare clinic-based (CB) and home-based (HB) deliveries of a knee osteoarthritis (OA) exercise programme.
Methods. Outcomes from a CB exercise study (N=6) utilising kinesthesia, balance and agility (KBA) exercises were compared with those from a HB KBA study (N=6). Both conditions trained 30 minutes, 3 days per week for 8 weeks. CB sessions were conducted in a group led by an exercise physiologist (EP); HB participants received an initial 3 sessions of one-to-one training from an EP, written/pictorial instructions, telephone and e-mail follow-up, and in-person refresher sessions during weeks 4 and 6. The primary outcome was an OA-specific physical function survey. Community activity level, self-report knee stability, 15-m get up and go walk, and stair climb and descent were also measured.
Results. Adherence was 94% in both conditions. KBA improved PF in both CB (59%; 18±12.5 pts; p=0.008) and HB (33%; 7.3±7.5 pts; p=0.03), with no difference between conditions. All outcome improvements were somewhat larger for CB, but these differences did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusion. We found no difference in outcomes between CB and HB exercise in this preliminary comparison. Our results support that KBA is an effective intervention for symptomatic knee OA that may be delivered in CB or HB settings.
Land- and water-based exercises in rheumatoid arthritis patients : a series of case reports : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 84 –88 (2011)More Less
Objective. To compare the effects of a 3-month land- and water-based exercise programme among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) sufferers.
Methods. Patients with RA Functional Class I and II (N=10) were randomly assigned to a land-based exercise group (Group L) (N=4), water-based exercise group (Group W) (N=4) or a control group (Group C) (N=2). Testing parameters included swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count (TJC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), haemoglobin (Hb), 50-ft (15.2-m) walk test, grip strength, isokinetic strength of knee extensors and flexors, knee range of motion (ROM) and aerobic capacity.
Results. There were individual improvements in most of the physical status parameters tested for the experimental groups (land-based exercise group and water-based exercise group) while the general trend for the control group was that of deterioration. Appropriate land-based exercises did not appear to aggravate disease activity. However, the water-based exercise programme was superior in controlling the disease activity with regards to the tender and swollen joint counts.
Conclusion. Both exercise interventions appeared to be beneficial in the treatment of RA. Further research is required comparing various modes of exercises for the treatment of RA, using larger samples and evaluating the long-term effects.
An analysis of the performance of Black African junior provincial cricket batsmen : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 90 –94 (2011)More Less
Objectives. This study investigated the difference in performance of white (W), coloured/Indian (C/I) and black African (BA) cricket batsmen at a junior provincial level in South Africa over a period of 7 years.
Methods. Data of all players participating in the South African interprovincial under-15 (U15) and under-19 (U19) tournaments between the years 2004 and 2010 were analysed. The number of participants, batting averages and number of batsmen in the top 20 run scorers in the tournament were compared between groups.
Results. 52% of players were white and 48% were black (27% BA and 21% C/I). BA batting averages (runs/dismissal) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than W batting averages for every year from 2004 to 2010 for both the U15 and U19s. W batsmen only had significantly better batting averages than C/I for the U/15s in 2010 and for the U19s in 2009 and 2010. W batsmen dominated the top 20 run scorers in the tournament in each year for both U15s and U19s while there were few BA batsmen represented in the top 20.
Conclusion. The performances of BA batsmen at junior provincial level are well below those of W batsmen and appear to follow the same trend as the senior provincial batsmen.
Transcendence of musculoskeletal injury in athletes with disability during major competition : case reportSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 95 –97 (2011)More Less
Hamstring injuries are common in jumping and sprinting athletes. This case series documents acute grade I - II hamstring injuries in two Paralympic athletes. These athletes were able to transcend their injuries to compete 4 and 6 days after injury to attain personal best achievements.
Author Wayne E. DermanSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 98 –99 (2011)More Less
With the emergence of robust clinical research during this century and wide acceptance of the principles of evidence-based medicine, clinical case reports have been regarded with ambivalence. It can be argued that they offer no credible evidence on the rate of clinical events, and no comparison or control group. Furthermore, they are severely limited as a way of understanding risk factors and causes of disease, or efficacy of therapeutic or preventive interventions. Despite these arguments clinicians often prefer to learn from case reports and use them as vehicles for continuing medical education.