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- Volume 23, Issue 4, 2011
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 23, Issue 4, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 4, 2011
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23 (2011)More Less
I have just read an interesting article that describes how concussion and other head injuries are becoming a national epidemic in America, where 1.7 million people are diagnosed with a traumatic brain injury every year. This number is increasing, not because the sporting environment is becoming more dangerous, but because there is a greater awareness of the consequences of concussion and therefore more cases are reported.
Rugby-playing history at the national U13 level and subsequent participation at the national U16 and U18 rugby tournaments : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 103 –105 (2011)More Less
Background. The South African Rugby Union has adopted the model of competition at a young age (U13 years) to identify talent. There is concern however that bigger players who mature early are selected at this age, and that the majority of these players do not play rugby at a high level after puberty.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to establish how many players in the 2005 U13 Craven week (n=349) participated in subsequent U16 Grant Khomo and U18 Craven week tournaments.
Results. 31.5% of the players who played in the U13 Craven week, were again selected to play at U16 Grant Khomo week and 24.1% were selected for the U18 Craven week.
Conclusion. Seventy-six per cent of the players selected for the U13 tournament do not play at the U18 national Craven week tournament. These data need to be considered when decisions are made about the cost-effectiveness of staging the U13 tournament, particularly if the main goal of this tournament is for talent identification.
The influence of a moderate aerobics programme on the body self-image of women in middle adulthood : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 106 –110 (2011)More Less
Objectives. This empirical study investigated the effect of a moderate aerobic exercise programme on the body self-image of a sample of women (n=49) in middle adulthood with a mean age of 54.2 years.
Methods. The participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=24) and a control group (n=25). The experimental group participated in a (guided) moderate aerobics programme over six weeks, while the control group participated in a sedentary (guided) meditation programme. The participants in both groups were assessed for body self-image using the nine factors defined in the Body Self-Image Questionnaire (BSIQ) of Rowe (2000). The BSIQ comprises both perceptual-cognitive and affective-attitudinal factors.
Results. The results indicated that there was an overall positive shift in the perceptual-cognitive factors of the body self-image in the exercise group, namely for overall appearance evaluation, health fitness evaluation and fatness evaluation. Although no significant shifts were found in all the affective-attitudinal factors of the participants, there was a significant change in the negative affect of the participants.
Conclusion. The results suggest that such a programme has a positive influence on the way these women think and feel about their bodies. No significant changes were found in the body self-image of the control group. These findings suggest the positive effect of a (guided) aerobic exercise programme in improving the body self-image of women in middle adulthood.
Pattern of vigorous physical activity among Egyptian freshmen university students : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 111 –116 (2011)More Less
Objectives. To highlight the pattern of vigorous physical activity among freshmen university students and to evaluate the association between sociodemographic factors, perceived barriers, support factors, sedentary behaviours and body mass index.
Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on Mansoura University students at the beginning of the academic year 2008 - 2009. A total of 500 freshmen students were selected by systematic random sample. Participants responded to the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and other questions.
Results. The study revealed that the prevalence of vigorous activity among the students was 9.8% (N=49) versus 90.2% (N=451) for mild and moderate activity. Body-related barriers were significantly higher among those reporting mild and moderate activities as shyness from others when doing exercise (6.9% versus 0.0%) and shyness from body looks in front of people (14.6% versus 4.1%). Lack of equipment was also perceived to be a barrier (31.0% versus 16.3%), for those doing mild to moderate versus vigorous, respectively. A significantly higher proportion of persons doing vigorous activity reported the influence of support factors such as perceived benefit for health (53.1% versus 33.7%), encouragement from others (53.1% versus 30.4%) and participation from others (51.0% versus 23.9%), compared with the more sedentary students. The majority of both groups spent <4 hours daily in front of a computer, but the overall proportion was significantly higher among those only reporting mild and moderate activity (88.0% versus 63.3%).
Conclusion. The prevalence of most of the barriers studied was higher among those reporting mild and moderate activities and support factors were higher among those reporting vigorous activity. These results highlight the importance of environmental factors, social norms and intra-personal factors in determining the pattern of activity among Egyptian freshmen university students.
The prevalence of hypertension and the relationship with body composition in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 117 –122 (2011)More Less
Objective. To determine the prevalence of hypertension in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa and to investigate the association between blood pressure (BP) and body composition of these children.
Methods. Data were collected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure from 816 Grade 1 learners (419 boys, 397 girls) with a mean age of 6.78±0.49 years (mean±SD), in the NWCHILD-study. Height, weight, skinfolds (subscapular, triceps, calf) and waist circumference were measured. The international recommended cut-off values of Cole et al. (2000) for body mass index (BMI) were used. Hypertension, defined as the average of two separate BP (BP) readings, where the systolic BP and diastolic BP is >95th percentile for age, sex and height, was determined by means of an Omron 705CP-II.
Results. The overall prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 8.5% and 24.9%, respectively. Both systolic and diastolic BP was positively associated with BMI, body fat percentage and waist circumference. Boys and girls showed a similar prevalence of hypertension. A higher percentage of black children were hypertensive compared with whites, although the difference in BP of the groups was not significant. A high percentage of children with normal weight also showed increased levels of BP.
Conclusions. High prevalences of hypertension were found in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa. Small practical significant associations existed between BP and body composition. BP screening is therefore considered important in the paediatric population. Interventions which include physical activity are recommended to reduce potential cardiovascular complications and obesity among children. Other contributing factors to high BP amongst young children should also be investigated.
Authors: Lars Engebretsen, Kathrin Steffen, Joseph Alsousou, Eduardo Anitua, Norbert Bachl, Roger Devilee, Peter Everts, Bruce Hamilton, Johnny Huard, Peter Jenoure, Francois Kelberine, Elizaveta Kon, Nicola Maffulli, Gordon Matheson, Omer Mei-Dan, Jacques Menetrey, Marc Philippon, Pietro Randelli, Patrick Schamasch, Martin Schwellnus, Alan Vernec and Geoffrey VerrallSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 123 –133 (2011)More Less
In 2008, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) published a consensus document on the importance of molecular mechanisms in connective tissue and skeletal muscle injury and healing. This document predicted an increase in the use of autologous growth factors, as it has indeed happened following that publication.
Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the sports concussion arena : commentaryAuthor Ann B. Shuttleworth-EdwardsSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 134 –135 (2011)More Less
The purpose of this article was to contribute to an argument regarding the utility of computerised baseline and follow-up neurocognitive testing within the sports concussion arena. Heated debate around this issue via a number of contributions has appeared recently in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports, with its use being roundly condemned by one party as 'scientifically unfounded' and therefore 'financially irresponsible'. It is proposed that this vehemently negative viewpoint is located in a 'smoke and mirrors' portrayal of the validity of such neurocognitive screening, being substantiated on questionable extrapolations from laboratory-type group research to the clinical situation. The stance runs counter to the tenets of modern clinical neuropsychology, and is incompatible with more rigorous scientific pointers from current research. Abreast of the latest concussion in sport consensus recommendations, it is concluded that there is compelling support for the burgeoning use of computerised neurocognitive evaluation in the sports concussion arena as the optimal and most responsible healthcare currently available in this arena.
Author Stafford C. RorkeSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 136 –137 (2011)More Less
Presentations delivered at the 14th Biennial South African Sports Medicine Congress in Johannesburg (18 - 20 October 2011) indicate that the South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA) not only met, but exceeded expectations related to the conference theme 'From basics to brilliance - world class in Africa'. In my opinion (a visiting American scholar) SASMA demonstrated commitment to high-quality sports injury prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and management.
Author Theresa L. BurgessSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 23, pp 138 –139 (2011)More Less
The complexities of return-to-sport decisions are not unfamiliar to healthcare professionals working with elite and recreational athletes. Medical advances and effective rehabilitation protocols have increased the potential for returning athletes to competition more quickly. However, these advances cannot keep up with the increasing expectations for athletes to perform at continually higher levels. These expectations are compounded by both the large financial rewards apportioned to most professional athletes; and increasing media attention, which creates additional social pressure.