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- Volume 24, Issue 1, 2012
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 24, Issue 1, 2012
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 1, 2012
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24 (2012)More Less
Sports medicine and exercise science has blossomed as a discipline. For example, in the 1960s the understanding of fatigue was restricted to changes in substrates and metabolites that could be measured in a muscle biopsy. The explanation of fatigue revolved around these measurements and interventions were planned using this limited knowledge. Now, over 40 years later, the functioning of the brain and muscles can be measured simultaneously during a bout of exercise and therefore the understanding of fatigue has both broadened and deepened. It goes without saying that the interventions have become more enriched with a much stronger impact. There are many other examples showing that the knowledge database has increased exponentially as the discipline has evolved. However, just like other branches of science, the gap between the knowledge of a topic and the translation of this knowledge into action is still wide.
Prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among adolescent cricketers in KwaZulu-Natal : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24, pp 3 –9 (2012)More Less
Objectives. This study investigated the prevalence and nature of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among male adolescent cricket players (n=234) residing in the Highway area of Durban over a 12-month period during all the seasons of the year.
Methods. Data were collected from five secondary schools. Subjects' participation was dependent on voluntary and parental informed consent. Child assent forms were also provided for the schoolboy cricket players to complete. Participants were required to complete a self-reported questionnaire probing the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain within the last 12 months. The probability was set at p≤0.05.
Results. A total of 188 subjects (80%) experienced cricket-related musculoskeletal pain (p<0.0001). The most common sites were the lower extremities (39%), followed by upper extremities (36%) and lower back (18%). The prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain specific to the various anatomical sites were mostly knee (30%) and lower back (29%), followed by shoulder (17%), ankle (13%) and thigh (11%). The predisposing mechanisms producing cricket-related musculoskeletal pain reported by the cricketers were direct physical trauma (83%) and over-use (17%) (p<0.0001).
Conclusion. Male adolescent recreational cricket players reported a high prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain. The knee was the most common anatomical site. Parents, guardians and coaches should pay specific caution to preliminary and extrinsic factors causing musculoskeletal pain in adolescent cricketers.
A 3-year investigation into the incidence and nature of cricket injuries in elite South African schoolboy cricketers : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24, pp 10 –14 (2012)More Less
Objectives. Injury surveillance is fundamental to preventing and reducing the risk of injury. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of the injuries sustained by elite schoolboy cricketers over three seasons (2007 - 2008, 2008 - 2009, 2009 - 2010) to identify possible risk factors.
Methods. Sixteen provincial age-group cricket teams (Under 15, Under 17 and Under 18) competing in national age-group tournaments were asked to complete questionnaires to obtain the following information for each injury: (i) anatomical site; (ii) month; (iii) cause; (iv) whether it was a recurrence of a previous injury; (v) whether the injury had reoccurred again during the season; and (vi) biographical data. Injuries were grouped according to the anatomical region injured. All players were requested to respond, irrespective of whether an injury had been sustained. The Sample Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was used to compute univariate statistics and frequency distributions. Of the 1 292 respondents 366 (28%) sustained a total of 425 injuries. The U15 and U17 groups sustained 166 (39%) and 148 (35%) injuries, respectively, more than the 111 injuries sustained by the U18 group (26%). These injuries were predominantly to the lower (46%) and upper (35%) limbs and occurred primarily during 1-day matches (31%), practices (27%) and with gradual onset (21%). The primary mechanism of injury was bowling (45%) and fielding, including running to field the ball (33%). Forty-two lumbar muscle strains, 18 hamstring strains, 17 spondylolisthesis and 17 ankle sprains occurred. The injuries were acute (50%), chronic (42%) and acute-on-chronic (8%), with 24% and 46% being recurrent injuries from the previous and current seasons, respectively.
Results. Similar injury patterns occurred in studies of adult cricketers, with slight differences in the nature and incidence of injuries found for the various age groups. The U15 group sustained less serious injuries which resulted in them not being able to play for between 1 - 7 days (54%), with more injuries occurring in the pre-season period (28%) than the other groups. The U17 group sustained the most lumbar muscle strains (n=23), while the U18 group sustained more serious injuries with 60% of the injuries resulting in them not being able to play for 8 or more days.
Conclusion. Young fast-bowlers of all ages remain at the greatest risk of injury while slight differences in the nature and incidence of injuries occurred in the different age groups. It is recommended that cricket administrators and coaches need to implement an educational process of injury prevention and management.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24, pp 15 –21 (2012)More Less
Objectives. To investigate the effect of a 3-day trail run on markers of muscle damage and inflammation in recreational runners.
Main outcome measures. Pre-and post-stage and 24-hour and 72-hour post-race concentrations of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK), high sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP), cortisol, cardiac Troponin T (cTnT), and osmolality (sOsm) as well as urinary myoglobin (uMb), changes in body mass, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and thigh circumference (TC) were measured. Continuous recordings of heart rate (HR) and intestinal temperature (Tintest) were made throughout each stage.
Results. Heart rate ranged between 77% and 83% age-predicted maximum (APmax) and Tintest between 36.1 and 40.2°C during the three stages. Significant rises in mean serum CPK, hsCRP, sOsm and blood neutrophil count reached peak concentrations of 1488U/l, 8.91mg/l, 298mosm/l and 10.21 109/l (p<0.001), respectively. No evidence of elevations in uMb and cTnT were detected. The stage-induced increments in DOMS correlated positively with CPK, r=0.71; 95% CI [0.62, 0.78], TC decreased significantly post S1post and S2post (p<0.05) and a maximum mean body mass loss of 3.09% (±1.04%) occurred during S2.
Conclusion. Three consecutive days of 95-km trail running resulted in low markers of muscle damage and inflammation, despite the maintenance of a heart rate above 77% APmax, Tintest rising above 39°C and mean body mass decrement of >2.0%.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24, pp 22 –24 (2012)More Less
The study of human fatigue stretches back centuries and remains a significant part of medical and social discourse. In the exercise sciences fatigue is routinely related to the ability to produce muscle force or to the recovery from force decrements. However, the study of fatigue has by virtue of the experimental paradigm excluded the subjective sense a person attributes to an event or experience, thus reducing our overall understanding of the fatigue process. Modern studies report the causes of fatigue as either central or peripheral in origin. Although useful, this dichotomy can also exclude the individual subjective assessment. Furthermore, adhering dogmatically to set parameters is likely limiting the advancement of our understanding. A more realistic paradigm would permit the individual to use the sensory cues to adjust the effort along with the fatigue process rather than rely purely on feedback mechanisms. Therefore, bringing feedforward mechanisms of the brain into fatigue research perhaps represents the next phase in the unravelling of the fatigue process.
Physical activity as a global risk factor for non-communicable diseases : time for action, what, why, when, who and how? : commentaryAuthor Estelle V. LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24, pp 25 –26 (2012)More Less
Chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for more than two-thirds of global mortality, at least 50% of which is preventable on the basis of modifiable lifestyle behaviours. In the wake of the UN Global Summit on NCDs, the World Health Organization produced a discussion paper that emphasised the need for a global monitoring framework and voluntary global targets for the prevention and control of NCDs.
The WHO discussion paper presents 10 suggested voluntary targets including the reduction in deaths due to NCDs, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, an overall reduction in blood pressure and obesity, as well as reduced smoking, alcohol and dietary salt intake, increased screening for cervical cancer and the elimination of trans-fats from the food supply. Physical activity is notable by its absence from this critical list of voluntary global targets for preventing and controlling NCDs.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 24, pp 27 –29 (2012)More Less
Within the compressed gas diving arena there is a risk of cerebral damage with deleterious neuropsychological sequelae in association with decompression illness (DCI), hypoxia, gas toxicity, as well as the cumulative subclinical effect of 'silent' paradoxical gas embolisms, the last being an area of growing concern. However, within diving medicine there is little evidence of the regular use of neuropsychological evaluation to monitor brain-related sequelae of frequent diving activity. In contrast, in recent years there has been an explosion of interest in the management of sports concussive injury, including emphasis on the pivotal role of neuropsychological evaluation within that context. Taking the cue from sports concussion medicine, it is proposed that there is an urgent need to incorporate neurocognitive baseline and follow-up screening as a core component in the medical management of those involved in intensive commercial and recreational compressed air diving activities. The objective would be to facilitate (i) accurate neurodiagnostic follow-up of frank DCI or an identifiable hypoxic or toxic incident; (ii) timeous identification of cumulative deleterious effects of repetitive subclinical hypoxic/toxic incidents and/or 'silent' paradoxical gas embolisms that might affect them in later life; and (iii) disability assessment following any such events or the combination thereof for rehabilitation and compensation purposes.