The application of science governing human performance in the laboratory is well refined with a defined set of guiding principles. For example, rules are in place about recruiting subjects, randomising them into different groups, familiarising them with the equipment used to measure performance, and then testing them before and after the implementation of the treatment. The implementation being evaluated may have something to do with nutrition, specialised training, tapering or pacing.
Objective. To determine the short-term effect of kinesio tape on the explosive gluteus maximus power of male athletes, comparing a recommended application pattern with a placebo.
Methods. Sixty healthy university male athletes participated in this double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Those athletes with musculoskeletal injury 6 weeks prior to screening, serious medical condition(s) in the previous 6 months, or metabolic conditions affecting joint integrity were not selected. A different investigator from the one who administered the intervention randomly allocated participants to groups. Allocation was concealed. Group A (n=30) received a recommended Y-strip kinesio tape application and group B (n=30) a neutral placebo application. Height displacement during a counter-movement jump was measured with a reliable Vertec apparatus. Measurements were recorded at baseline, immediately after strapping and 30 minutes later. Participants and raters were blinded to group assignment. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance for repeated measures were used to determine the effect of time and group on the measurements. Post hoc analysis was done using the Tukey's method.
Results. Time (before, immediately after and 30 minutes after taping) had a significant effect on the measurements. All the measurements after intervention (either immediately or 30 minutes after) had significant differences compared with baseline (95% CI [0.59, 2.29] and [1.50, 3.2] respectively.)
Conclusion. The recommended application type of taping with kinesio tape was equally effective in significantly improving the explosive power of the gluteus maximus in male athletes immediately after and 30 minutes after taping in both groups.
Background. The South African Rugby Union (SARU) has had a continual challenge to make the game representative of players of all ethnic groups at all levels of play. In response to this challenge SARU has implemented several programmes designed to accelerate the development of players from previously disadvantaged areas with the goal of making the game more representative. However, the success of these programmes to transform the player profile at different levels of rugby cannot be evaluated because the players representing different ethnic groups have not been quantified in a systematic way.
Objectives. To quantify the number and playing time of South African professional players (Vodacom, Currie Cup, Super Rugby and Springboks) from different ethnic groups from 2007 to 2011 to determine whether there are any changes in the profile of the players over this period.
Methods. Playing time was recorded for all players in sanctioned matches. Players were divided into the ethnic classifications used by SARU (i.e. white, coloured and black).
Results. At all levels of competition there were proportionally more white players, followed by coloured players and then black players. This pattern did not change from 2007 to 2011. Based on the ratio of number of players v. playing time, the white players played more time than expected at the Springbok level, whereas the black players played less than expected for the number of players from 2007 to 2011. At the Vodacom level the white players played more than expected in 2007 and 2008 and played less than expected in 2010 and 2011, whereas the black players played more than expected in 2010 and the coloured players played more than expected at the 2011 tournament. The Super Rugby tournament had the most consistency between players and expected playing time for the different ethnic groups.
Conclusions. Despite the effort to support players from disadvantaged backgrounds since 1998 with facilitative programmes and selection targets, the professional game is still dominated by white players at all levels.
Biokinetics - 'Life through Movement'. More than 25 years after the profession of Biokinetics received recognition as a professional discipline within the South African health context, the first international conference organised by BASA is to be held in Potchefstroom from 27 to 29 September 2012. This first 'Life through Movement' Conference (LTMIC) is organised as an international conference at the Potchefstroom campus of the North-West University, where Professor Gert Strydom contextualised the profession (1996) and fought for the recognition the profession has today. Biokinetics focuses on exercise as treatment modality to prevent chronic diseases of lifestyle as well as to modify risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle. Biokineticists are also involved in the prevention and final-phase rehabilitation of sports injuries and performance optimisation.