- A-Z Publications
- South African Journal of Sports Medicine
- Previous Issues
- Volume 25, Issue 1, 2013
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 25, Issue 1, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 1, 2013
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25 (2013)More Less
Some may have noticed that all the back-dated issues of the South African Journal of Sports Medicine have been digitally converted and loaded onto the journal website (http://www.sajsm.org.za/index.php/sajsm/issue/archive). This was facilitated by the African Journal Archive Project (http://www.ajarchive.org), which is a retrospective digitisation project aimed at building a digital archive of journals published exclusively in Africa and about Africa. The project is funded by the Carnegie Corporation and managed by Sabinet Online. This was done at no cost to the South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA) and was supported by the publishers of our journal, the Health and Medical Publishing Group, who then loaded the digitally converted journals onto the website.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 3 –5 (2013)More Less
This article was reproduced with permission from the BMJ Group. It was first published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine : Viljoen W, Patricios J. BokSmart - implementing a National Rugby Safety Programme. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:492-493. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091278]
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 6 –7 (2013)More Less
This article was reproduced with permission from the BMJ Group. It was first published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine : Bleakley CM, Glasgow P, MacAuley DC. PRICE needs updating, should we call the POLICE? Br J Sports Med 2012;46:220-221. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090297]
Attitudes and behaviours of top-level junior rugby union coaches towards the coaching of proper contact technique in the tackle - a pilot study : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 8 –11 (2013)More Less
Background. Coaching strategies for effective technique and injury prevention have been proposed for the tackle. Despite this, little is known about current coaching attitudes and the behaviours of coaches towards proper contact technique in the tackle, especially at the junior level.
Objective. To report on the attitudes and behaviours of junior rugby union coaches towards coaching of proper contact technique in the tackle.
Methods. Seven coaches of the top 8 rugby-playing schools (Premier Division) in the Western Province Rugby Union participated in the study (representing 88% of the entire population of top-level junior coaches in the region). Coaches completed a questionnaire, modelled on previous research, surveying attitudes and behaviours towards tackling.
Results. Proper technique for injury prevention was rated as very important (57%) and important (29%), with 14% undecided. Proper technique to improve performance was rated as very important (57%) and important (43%). To further develop coaching knowledge and to develop new training methods, 'coaching colleagues' (very much - 71%; mean rating 4.7; 95% CI 4.3 - 5.2) was rated as the most often used.
Conclusion. Collectively, the coaches in this study demonstrated a positive attitude towards injury prevention and performance. Additional means of communicating information to coaches, other than the traditional channels, have also been highlighted here.
Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic strength of semi-professional rugby union players : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 12 –17 (2013)More Less
Background. Shoulder injuries are the most severe injuries in rugby union players, accounting for almost 20% of injuries related to the sport and resulting in lost playing hours.
Objective. To profile the thoracic posture, scapular muscle activation patterns and rotator cuff muscle isokinetic strength of semi-professional rugby union players.
Methods. Using the hand-behind-the-neck and -back methods, we manually tested the range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder joints of 91 uninjured semi-professional rugby union players who consented to participate in the study. Profiling and classification of thoracic posture was performed according to the New York Posture Test. Activation patterns of the upper and lower trapezius, serratus anterior and infraspinatus scapular muscles were determined by electromyography. The isokinetic muscle strength of the rotator cuff muscles was determined at 60°/sec by measuring the concentric and eccentric forces during internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER).
Results. Participants presented with non-ideal or unsatisfactory internal (59%) and external (85%) rotators of the shoulder. A slightly abnormal or abnormal forward head posture was observed in 55% of participants, while 68% had an abnormal shoulder position in the lateral view. The muscle activation sequence of the rotator cuff muscles was: (i) serratus anterior, (ii) lower trapezius, (iii) infraspinatus, and (iv) upper trapezius. The isokinetic ER/IR muscle-strength ratio during concentric muscle contraction was 64% (standard deviation (SD) ±14) for the left shoulder and 54% (SD ±10) for the right shoulder. The ER/IR ratio for eccentric muscle contraction was 67% (SD ±12) and 61% (SD ±9) for the left and right shoulders, respectively.
Conclusions. Non-ideal or unsatisfactory flexibility of the external rotators of the shoulder, a forward shoulder posture in the lateral view, and weakness of the external rotators did not result in an abnormal rotator cuff muscle activation pattern in this study. Postural deviations may, however, increase the risk of shoulder injury in rugby union players in the long term, and should be corrected.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 18 –22 (2013)More Less
Background. Physical activity (PA) has been described as medicine, owing to the clear evidence for its role in the prevention and management of various diseases.
Objectives. To determine the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) towards the promotion of PA.
Methods. A total of 255 private-sector GPs from various provinces in SA participated in our cross-sectional study, by completing a self-report questionnaire surveying their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards the promotion of PA.
Results. The findings indicated that South African GPs in general do promote PA to their patients for treatment and health promotion. The majority of GPs in our study strongly believed that promoting PA is an important part of primary healthcare. The GPs frequently promoted exercise in the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.
Conclusion. South African GPs appear to be recommending PA to their patients at a primary-care level. Clear practice guidelines are needed to promote PA in a way that will have a population-level impact. To aid this, GPs are encouraged to provide written information to promote PA in a way that will have an effect.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 23 –27 (2013)More Less
Background. Ankle injuries are one of the most common injuries in sport and have a high recurrence rate.
Aim. To determine the prevalence of clinical signs of ankle injuries in club rugby players in South Gauteng.
Methods. Institutional ethical clearance was obtained for the study. Of the 180 players from 9 clubs who were eligible for participation in the study, 76% (n=137) were recruited. Informed consent was obtained before players were asked to complete a battery of tests. Each player was asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and the Olerud and Molander questionnaire to determine the prevalence of clinical signs of perceived instability. The prevalence of clinical signs of mechanical instability was determined by the anterior drawer test (ADT) and talar tilt test (TTT). Balance and proprioception were assessed by the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and this was used to determine the prevalence of clinical signs of functional instability.
Results. The prevalence of perceived instability was 44%. The prevalence of clinical signs of mechanical ankle instability was 33%. There was an increased prevalence of mechanical instability in players who had a history of previous ankle injuries: ADT left (p=0.003); ADT right (p=0.01); TTT left (p=0.001); TTT right (p=0.08), both tests positive left (p=0.001) and both tests positive right (p=0.03). The prevalence of clinical signs of functional ankle instability depended on the surface and visual input, and was greater as the challenge or perturbation increased.
Conclusion. There was a high prevalence of clinical signs of ankle instability in club rugby players for perceived, mechanical and functional instability. Those with previously injured ankles were more likely to have unstable ankles.
The state of women's rugby union in South Africa : recommendations for long-term participant development : reviewAuthor M. PosthumusSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 28 –35 (2013)More Less
Several international rugby unions, including the South African Rugby Union, have adopted the long-term athlete development (LTAD) model, which is based on physiological principles that categorise players into specific stages of development. The original model proposes different age categories for boys and girls within each specific stage of development. This review: (i) discusses the current state of junior female rugby in South Africa; (ii) discusses the evidence for gender-specific differences in the LTAD model; and (iii) recommends a future strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions.