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- Volume 25, Issue 4, 2013
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 25, Issue 4, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 4, 2013
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25 (2013)More Less
A recent incident I encountered as editor of this journal drew my attention to the risk that we face as a result of unethical practices in science. It takes an incident like this to heighten awareness about how vulnerable the 'scientific process' is to abuse. The scientific process is based on principles of trust and honesty. This starts at the data-collection phase of the experiment and includes the data analysis, writing phase (i.e. using own original text) and the avoidance of 'cherry picking' published work to support one's own data. Before the manuscript is published, it has to go through a process of peer review - although this is touted as the core of the scientific process, it may also have irregularities when a reviewer, for example, blocks studies which have a counter view to the reviewer's own paradigm.
Physiotherapists' knowledge of pain : a cross-sectional correlational study of members of the South African Sports and Orthopaedic Manipulative Special Interest Groups : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 95 –100 (2013)More Less
Background. Pain is the most common complaint for which patients seek the help of a physiotherapist. Furthermore, pain has been identified as the fifth vital sign, indicating the attention with which physiotherapists should be assessing pain. Previous studies have found deficits in pain knowledge among healthcare providers. Poor knowledge about pain is recognised to lead to poor assessment ability, and subsequently, to poor pain management.
Objective. To investigate the pain knowledge of sports and orthopaedic manipulative physiotherapists in South Africa (SA).
Methods. Data were collected online by means of a demographic questionnaire and Unruh's Revised Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire (RPKAQ). Participants were members of the Sports Physiotherapy Group and Orthopaedic Manipulative Physiotherapy Group of the South African Society of Physiotherapy.
Results. The mean score for the RPKAQ was 65.5% (standard deviation (SD) ± 8.6). Only 14.45% of the physiotherapists scored ≥75%. Lowest scores were obtained for the 'assessment and measurement of pain' (47.6%; SD ± 15.6) and 'developmental changes in pain perception' (58.7%; SD ± 20.8) sections of the RPKAQ, while the highest mean score was obtained for the 'physiological basis of pain' section (76.8%; SD ± 14.6). Gender, ethnicity (defined by home language), academic training and clinical experience did not contribute significantly to overall pain knowledge.
Conclusion. There is an inadequate level of pain knowledge among members of the sports and orthopaedic manipulative physiotherapy groups in SA, particularly in the areas of the assessment and measurement of pain, and developmental changes in pain perception.
NSAID and other analgesic use by endurance runners during training, competition and recovery : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 101 –104 (2013)More Less
Background. An increasing popularity of ultra-endurance events coupled with excessive or inappropriate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use during such events could pose considerable potential risks to runners' health.
Objective. To evaluate the incidence of NSAID and other analgesic use in distance runners during training, competition and recovery.
Methods. We performed an observational cross-sectional study at the Desert Race Across the Sand race (Colorado to Utah, USA) in June 2011 and the Empire State Marathon half-marathon, and relay races in Syracuse, NY, October 2011. A total of 27 ultramarathon runners and 46 marathon, half-marathon and marathon relay runners participated in the study. Surveys were distributed to runners during race registration. Self-reported use of common analgesic medications during training, racing and recovery was assessed.
Results. Among all runners at all stages, NSAIDs were the most commonly used analgesic medication. NSAID use by ultramarathon runners compared with all other runners was similar during training (59% and 63%, respectively; χ2=0.008; p=0.93) and recovery (59% and 61%, respectively; χ2=0.007; p=0.93). However, ultramarathon runners were more likely than all other runners to use NSAIDs during the race (70% and 26%, respectively; χ2=11.76; p=0.0006).
Conclusion. Despite undesirable side-effects associated with the use of NSAIDs, there was a high prevalence of use in all runners, particularly during training and recovery. NSAID use during the race was significantly greater in ultramarathon runners. Medical staff at endurance events need to be aware of, and prepared for potential complications related to the high use of NSAIDs in runners. Future efforts should focus on teaching runners about the undesirable effects of medication and emphasising alternatives to pain medication.
Author S.P. WalkerSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 105 –108 (2013)More Less
Background. Burnout among adolescent athletes is a cause for concern. However, little is known about the intrapersonal factors that may be related to burnout in this population.
Objectives. To explore the relationship between burnout and mindfulness among competitive adolescent tennis players.
Methods. Competitive adolescent tennis players (N=104; mean age 16 years) completed measures of mindfulness and athlete burnout. Correlations were calculated with regard to mindfulness and burnout. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine whether athletes assigned to three levels of mindfulness (high, moderate and low) differed significantly with regard to burnout.
Results. Mindfulness exhibited significant negative correlations with global burnout, emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. The results of the MANOVA indicated that individuals in the three mindfulness groups (high, moderate and low) reported significantly different levels of burnout. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the high mindfulness group reported a significantly lower sense of reduced accomplishment and global burnout than participants in the low mindfulness group. In addition, participants in the low mindfulness group reported significantly higher levels of global burnout than individuals in the high and moderate mindfulness groups.
Conclusion. Mindfulness appears to be negatively related to athlete burnout among competitive adolescent tennis players. Furthermore, athletes reporting different levels of mindfulness exhibit differing levels of burnout. The potential protective effect of mindfulness with regard to burnout among adolescent athletes warrants further investigation.
The relationship between functional movement analysis and lower-body injury rates in adolescent female football players : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 109 –113 (2013)More Less
Objective. To determine whether a relationship exists between the functional movement analysis (FMA) score and lower-body injury rates in high-performance adolescent female football players.
Method. Observations included a baseline FMA score and medical injury reports. Data were collected from 24 players' injury and illness records over a 38-week training period. All football injuries requiring medical attention (including stiffness, strains, contusions and sprains) and/or the removal from a session, leading to training restriction, were included in the study. Off-season weeks were excluded. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the strength of the linear relationship between the FMA score and the number of medical visits, and between the number of medical visits and the number of training-restriction days.
Results. There was no evidence of a relationship between the FMA score and injury risk in teenage female football players (r=0.016; p=0.940). A strong indication of a cyclical season in the training schedule was noticed over the 38-week study period. A substantive negative correlation (r=-0.911; p=0.032) was seen in the number of medical visits compared with the training-restriction days. Injuries during two peak periods could have resulted from overuse, increased training load, stress and overtraining.
Conclusion. It could not be shown that a high FMA score was associated with a lower risk of injury. The ultimate goal is thus to reduce recurrent injury in players with a high FMA count. The regular medical visits observed suggest that player condition is maintained by means of reducing injury and managing training-restriction days. Our findings are in accordance with previous studies in terms of the lower limb being the most frequent region of injury, specifically the knee. This study supports previous suggestions that it is essential to develop a prevention strategy to measure trauma and recovery.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 25, pp 114 –115 (2013)More Less
Osteoid osteomas are benign osteoblastic tumours encountered relatively commonly among skeletal lesions. Despite distinct clinical findings, atypical presentations make for a challenging or delayed diagnosis which may negatively affect a patient's quality of life in the interim. We present the case of a young female rugby player with a subperiosteal osteoid osteoma of the distal fibula - a rare location for this type of tumour.