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- Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.538More Less
It struck me recently that we have entered a consolidation phase in exercise science and sports medicine. The exponential increase in knowledge that we have experienced since the early 1980s seems to have stabilised. This thought came about after the recent publication of excellent reviews on a variety of topics. A key point is that these publications have focused on the translation of the research, emphasising the practical guidelines. These articles have set the standard for best practice. Consider as an example the research on concussion. The recent consensus statement is written for healthcare professionals who deal with athletes, and provides tools that can be used to individualise the return-to-play decisions after an athlete is concussed.
Common acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries among female adolescent field hockey players in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 4 –8 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.482More Less
Objective. To document the prevalence and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among female adolescent hockey players over a 12-month period (1 November 2011 - 31 October 2012).
Methods. Data were collected from 148 high school players who belonged to the KwaZulu-Natal Hockey League via voluntary, parental-informed consent. Players completed a self-report musculoskeletal questionnaire probing the prevalence and nature of acute and chronic injuries. Probability was set at p≤0.05.
Results. Ninety-four players sustained acute musculoskeletal injuries in the 12-month study period, indicating the knee (23%) and lower back (18%) to be the most prevalent sites of injury (p<0.001). The mechanisms producing the acute injuries were rapid rotational movement (36%) and physical trauma (63%) (p<0.05). The hip/lower back was the most prevalent anatomical site of chronic musculoskeletal injury (p<0.001). The intrinsic factors predisposing players to chronic hip/lower-back injury were hip flexion contractures and posture (p<0.05).
Conclusion. Hockey players experience a high prevalence of acute musculoskeletal knee injuries and chronic hip/lower-back injuries. The hockey fraternity should be educated about the various ways in which to prevent injury by complying with appropriate training regimes, alterations in technique and stretching exercises.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 9 –15 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.523More Less
Background. Although variants within genes that encode protein components of several biological systems have been associated with athletic performance, limited studies have investigated the collagen genes that encode the structural components of connective tissues.
Objective. To investigate the association of variants within collagen genes with endurance performance in South African (SA) Ironman triathletes.
Methods. A total of 661 white, male participants were recruited from four SA Ironman triathlon events for this genetic case-control association study. All participants were genotyped for COL3A1 rs1800255 (G/A) and COL12A1 rs970547 (A/G).
Results. No independent associations were identified between COL3A1 rs1800255 and COL12A1 rs970547 and overall finishing time or time to complete any of the individual components (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike or 42.2 km run) of the 226 km event. The major G+A-inferred pseudo-haplotype, constructed from COL3A1 rs1800255 and COL12A1 rs970547, was, however, significantly (p=0.010 and p=0.027) overrepresented in the fast run tertile (58.7%) compared with the middle (53.5%) and slow (49.5%) run tertiles, respectively. The major G+T+A-inferred pseudo-haplotype, constructed from COL3A1 rs1800255, COL5A1 rs12722 (T/C) and COL12A1 rs970547, was again significantly (p=0.022) over-represented in the fast run tertile (35.2%) compared with the slow run tertile (28.9%).
Conclusion. Our main novel finding was that the COL3A1 rs1800255 and COL12A1 rs970547 variants interacted to modulate endurance running performance in the four SA Ironman triathlons investigated. In addition, the interaction between these variants and COL5A1 rs12722 appeared to modulate endurance running performance.
Steps that count! A feasibility study of a pedometer-based, health-promotion intervention in an employed, South African population : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 15 –19 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.500More Less
Background. The emergence of the pedometer as a useful motivational aid for increasing physical activity (PA) has supported its use in PA interventions.
Objectives. To examine the feasibility of a 10-week pedometer-based intervention complemented by regular motivational messages, to increase ambulatory PA; and to determine the minimum sample size required for a randomised, controlled trial (RCT).
Methods. Participants, sourced by convenience sampling of employees from an academic institution, were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (IG) (n=11) or control group (CG) (n=11), following baseline health measurements and blinded pedometer wear (week 1). Participants in the IG subsequently wore an unblinded pedometer (10 weeks) to self-monitor daily steps. Individualised messages using pedometer data (IG) and general motivational messages (IG and CG) were provided bi-weekly. Blinded pedometer wear (IG and CG) and a feedback questionnaire (IG) were completed at week 12. Pedometer data were compared between the IG and CG at week 12.
Results. Participants' perceptions of the intervention supported the benefit of the pedometer as a useful motivational aid and a reminder to increase steps per day. Occupational sitting time and inability to incorporate PA into daily routine emerged as the main barrier to adherence. Steps per day increased more in the IG (mean ± standard deviation (SD) 996±1 748) than in the CG (mean±SD 97±750). Modest improvements were noted in all clinical measures (IG).
Conclusion. Based on the improvement of 1 000 steps/day (IG), a minimum of 85 participants in the IG and CG, respectively, is required for a future RCT (80% power; p<0.05). We recommend a minimum of 150 participants in each group to account for loss to follow-up and to allow for subgroup analyses.
Micro-oscillations in positive and negative affect during competitive laboratory cycle time trials - a preliminary study : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 20 –25 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.496More Less
Background. By incorporating pre-performance or retrospective recall measurement methods, research has shown positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) to operate as both a precursor to, and as a consequence of performance in line with goal achievement. The extent of this affective change within sport is unclear, as measurement of affect within acute settings has yet to be adopted fully.
Objective. To conduct exploratory research examining affect and goal achievement during self-paced cycling to understand further their role during performance.
Methods. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS), Worcester affect scale (WAS) and ratings of goal achievement were completed by seven trained cyclists prior to two separate 20 km laboratory time trials. The WAS and ratings of goal achievement were also rated during each trial.
Results. Micro-oscillations in affect occurred throughout time trials and to a greater degree where participants were unsuccessful in reaching their goals. Successful trials were characterised by higher PA (p=0.000) and lower NA (p=0.000), with higher goal expectations from the start (p=0.008).
Conclusion. In unsuccessful trials, an overly aggressive start, perhaps due to inaccurate goal setting, led to an inability to maintain performance, with reductions in power output. Further clarification of the catalyst to the performance demise requires a parallel analysis of psychological and physiological parameters. In so doing, a greater understanding of the combined role of affect and goal expectation in pacing and performance will ensue; a benefit to both cyclist and coach alike.
The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in Gauteng Province : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 26 –30 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.512More Less
Background. Rugby is a highly demanding sport that carries a high risk of injury, specifically to the neck region. Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain.
Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in Gauteng Province, South Africa.
Methods. One hundred rugby union players of a mean ± standard deviation age of 22.1±2.4 years, height 1.84±0.07 m and weight 95.3±15.2 kg, completed the four-part questionnaire.
Results. We found a 12% prevalence of current neck pain, and 52% of the players reported experiencing previous neck pain. Neck pain was more frequently reported in forwards, with the tackle being the most commonly stated cause. Eighteen players reported mild to moderate disability as a result of neck pain. The players reported that neck strengthening, on-field treatment and coaching could be improved to prevent neck pain.
Conclusion. Current and previous neck pain is prevalent in rugby union players. Neck pain may be a sign of underlying pathology; therefore, players presenting with chronic or acute neck pain should be assessed thoroughly by a sports physician. Neck conditioning and strengthening should be encouraged in all players to prevent the deleterious effects that rugby union may have on the cervical spine.