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- Volume 26, Issue 3, 2014
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 26, Issue 3, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 26, Issue 3, 2014
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.575More Less
The Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) was initiated in 2007 by Prof. Vicki Lambert of the University of Cape Town, South Africa (SA). The idea arose after she attended an international conference on Physical Activity and Obesity in Children in Toronto, Canada, and witnessed the impact that the release of the Healthy Active Kids Canada Report Card had in that country. On her return, she garnered the support of nine enthusiastic scientists from six tertiary academic institutions in SA, convinced Discovery Vitality and the Sports Science Institute of SA that it was a worthwhile project to support, and together they produced the first HAKSA Report Card. Although this created media interest, it did not really translate into concerted action. Undeterred, the group repeated the exercise in 2010 - this time, there were 18 academics representing 10 institutions and NGOs. The scope was widened to include peer-reviewed literature, dissertations and government reports. The uptake this time was more promising, and the focus of the report was directed more toward intersectoral policies and programmes to try to effect change. In 2014, as part of the Global Summit on Physical Activity and Children, the team repeated their efforts, this time with 21 scientists from 15 academic institutions and NGOs. The additional outcomes of the 2014 report included an advocacy document and a peer-reviewed manuscript. The impact of the report is also going to be evaluated.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 69 –72 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.532More Less
Background. The skeletal immaturity of competitive female gymnasts allows for a unique physiological predisposition to injuries as a result of the spine, limbs, ankles and wrists still growing. Studies have shown that lower back (spinal) injuries account for approximately 12% of injuries in female gymnasts.
Objectives. The primary objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of radiological changes in female artistic gymnasts in South Africa. A further objective was to determine whether these radiological changes were associated with symptoms and with the amount of time spent training.
Methods. A sample of 40 female artistic gymnasts with a mean of age 15.2 years (range 10 - 31) was included in the study. Thirty-one were active gymnasts and nine were retired at the time of the current study. Measuring instruments included questionnaires and X-rays.
Results. X-ray analysis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic gymnasts showed no significant differences. Of the 18 gymnasts training < 25 h/week, 13 (72%) had degenerative changes detectable by X-ray. Of the 22 gymnasts training >25 h/week, 15 (68%) had degenerative changes detected by X-ray. Radiological changes were higher than those in other studies.
Conclusion. The prevalence of radiological changes was higher than international norms, however there was little difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic gymnasts. Patient self-reports of symptoms had little value in diagnosing change in the lumbar spine. Training duration affected the prevalence of changes in the lumbar spine and could be related to conditioning and experience.
Comparison of the effect of semi-rigid ankle bracing on performance among injured v. non-injured adolescent female hockey players : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 73 –76 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.517More Less
Objective. To determine the comparative proprioceptive performance of injured v. non-injured adolescent female hockey players wearing an ankle brace.
Methods. Data were collected from 100 high school players who belonged to the Highway Secondary School Hockey League, KwaZulu-Natal, via voluntary parental informed consent and player assent. Players completed an injury questionnaire probing the prevalence and nature of hockey injuries (March - August 2013). Subsequently, players completed a Biodex proprioceptive test with and without an ankle brace. Probability was set at p≤0.05.
Results. Twenty-two players sustained ankle injuries within the 6-month study period (p<0.001). Injured players performed similarly without bracing (right anterior posterior index (RAPI) 2.8 (standard deviation (SD) 0.9); right medial lateral index (RMLI) 1.9 (0.7); left anterior posterior index (LAPI) 2.7 (0.9); left medial lateral index (LMLI) 1.7 (0.6)) compared with bracing (RAPI 2.7 (1.4); RMLI 1.8 (0.6); LAPI 2.6 (1.0); LMLI 1.5 (0.6)) (p>0.05). However, bracing improved the ankle stability of the non-injured group (RAPI 2.2 (0.8); RMLI 1.5 (0.5); LAPI 2.4 (0.9); RMLI 1.5 (0.5)) compared with their performance without a brace (RAPI 2.5 (1.0); RMLI 1.8 (0.8); LAPI 2.8 (1.1); LMLI 1.8 (0.6)) (p<0.05).
Conclusion. Ankle bracing did not enhance the stability of injured ankles. However, ankle bracing has an ergogenic effect that enhances the stability of healthy ankles.
Steps that count : pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity and current physical guidelines - how do they relate? : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 77 –81 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.534More Less
Background. The association between self-perceived and actual physical activity, with particular reference to physical activity guidelines, may be an important factor in determining the extent of uptake of and compliance with physical activity.
Objectives. To examine the association between self-perceived and actual physical activity in relation to physical activity guidelines, with reference to volume, intensity and duration of steps/day, and to establish the level of agreement between pedometer-measured and self-reported ambulatory physical activity, in relation to current guidelines.
Methods. A convenience sample of adults (N=312; mean (standard deviation) age 37 (9) years), wore a pedometer (minimum 3 consecutive days) and completed a questionnaire that included information on physical activity patterns. Analyses of covariance, adjusted for age and gender, compared volume- and intensity-based steps according to meeting/not meeting guidelines (self-reported). The extent of agreement between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined.
Results. Average (SD) steps/day were 6 574 (3 541). Of a total of 312 participants' self-reported data, those meeting guidelines (n=63) accumulated significantly more steps/day than those not meeting guidelines (8 753 (4 251) v. 6 022 (3 114) total steps/day and 1 772 (2 020) v. 421 (1 140) aerobic steps/day, respectively; p<0.0001). More than half of the group who self-reported meeting the guidelines did not meet guidelines as per pedometer data.
Conclusion. The use of pedometers as an alternative and/or adjunct to self-reported measures is an area for consideration. Steps/day recommendations that consider intensity-based steps may provide significant effects in improving fitness and health.
Doping in sport : attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of competitive high-school athletes in Gauteng Province : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 81 –86 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.542More Less
Objective. To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations.
Methods. This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport academy athletes at the High Performance Centre, University of Pretoria, and competitive high-school athletes at four private high schools in Gauteng completed the survey. A self-determined, structured questionnaire was used to establish the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of the athletes.
Results. A total of 346 (208 males, 138 females) athletes, mean (standard deviation) age 16.9 (1.4) years participated in the survey. According to this survey, 3.9% of the athletes in this survey admitted to using a prohibited PED and more than 14.0% of the athletes said they would consider using a prohibited PED if they knew they would not get caught. Ambition (46.0%) and emotional pressure (22.5%) were the primary reasons why the athletes would consider using prohibited PEDs. Even though coaches appeared to be one of the main sources of information (on PEDs and anti-doping rules), only 42.1% of the athletes felt that they were well informed.
Conclusion. Controlling doping by means of testing is important. However, it may be necessary to put more emphasis on changing attitudes towards doping and implementing additional educational programmes.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 87 –90 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.553More Less
The role of prohormones, 'classic' and 'designer' steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones and newer molecules causing concern in dietary supplements is discussed. Apart from their potential adverse effects on athletes' health, their non-achievement of increased strength and muscle size, trace quantities present in contaminated dietary supplements can lead to failed doping tests. The methodologies used for the identification and determination of prohibited substances in very low concentrations, mainly liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, are also addressed. Of concern is the anticipation that the number of dietary supplements containing (not yet) prohibited designer steroids and other performance-enhancing newer chemical entities will increase. Athletes, coaches and sports doctors should therefore be provided with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for non-intentional ingestion of forbidden substances by using safe products listed on databases, such as those obtainable in The Netherlands and Germany.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 91 –92 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.563More Less
Abrasion injuries result in damage only to the surface layer of skin and can result in player discomfort and changes in performance. The perceived fear of abrasion injuries on artificial turf playing surfaces has significantly affected the adoption of these surfaces, particularly in sports that involve frequent player-surface interactions. The underreporting of abrasion injuries due to how time-loss injuries are defined and the lack of validity of the current abrasion measurement device highlight the need for more research to understand fully the incidence and nature of abrasions on artificial turf playing surfaces and the effect of these injuries on playing behaviour. Improved reporting of abrasion injuries and a more biofidelic test device could assist in both the development of abrasion-related injury prevention strategies and in dispelling players' negative perceptions of abrasions on artificial turf.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 93 –94 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.561More Less
There are few reported cases of cyclist's nodule in females. The condition has thus lent itself to synonyms such as third, supernumerary or accessory testicle. We report the imaging findings of a perineal nodule in a 29-year-old female patient who is a known cyclist, and discuss the differential diagnosis.