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- Volume 26, Issue 4, 2014
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 26, Issue 4, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 26, Issue 4, 2014
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.98More Less
Ultrasound v. sham ultrasound for experimentally induced delayed-onset muscle soreness : a double-blind, randomised controlled trial : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 99 –103 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.535More Less
Background. Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is an electrophysical therapy that is commonly used by sports physiotherapists, but its mechanism of action is unclear. There is little evidence that US therapy is more effective than sham US therapy, and any clinical benefits may be due to a placebo effect.
Objective. To investigate whether US has a specific effect that renders it effective in its own right, or whether its effect is placebo driven.
Methods. In a double-blind controlled trial, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was experimentally induced in both bicep muscles of 15 females. Sham US was applied to one bicep (n=15 biceps) and pulsed active US to the other bicep (n=15 biceps) of each participant, 48 and 72 h after induction of DOMS. Primary and secondary outcomes were pain reported on the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and range of movement (ROM) (elbow extension) measured by goniometry, respectively.
Results. Results showed significant improvements in pain and ROM over the intervention periods, but there was no difference between interventions.
Conclusion. US and sham US therapy improve pain equally when treating DOMS of the biceps in the context of a therapeutic encounter. This analgesic effect is placebo driven. Clinicians can influence the analgesic effect of US by managing the therapeutic context. Management of patients' anxiety may also boost the analgesic effect of US.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 104 –108 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.476More Less
Background. Stress is an integral part of daily living, but chronic activation of the stress response without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading of the physiological and psychological systems.
Objective. To decrease perceived stress by means of one known and/or one relatively unknown physical activity, namely aerobic exercise and somatic awareness exercise.
Methods. This investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative, experimental research design over an 8-week period using pre- and post-tests. Participants were measured for psychological stress using a perceived stress scale. The participants were divided into those who were physically untrained and those who participated in exercise training programmes.
Results. There were five groups in total. The physically untrained individuals were divided into four groups: a somatic awareness exercise group (n=9); an aerobic exercise group (n=15); a combination group taking part in both somatic awareness and aerobic exercise (n=8); and a control group (n=15). The 5th group contained individuals who participated in physical exercise prior to entering the programme; they were given somatic awareness exercise (n=9) in addition to their existing physical exercises. An independent samples t-test revealed significant changes for perceived stress in the aerobic, somatic, combination and exercise groups, with a 95% confidence level in comparison with the control group.
Conclusion. Various physical modes such as aerobic exercise, somatic awareness training and a combination of the two may be used to decrease one's perceived stress in moderately to highly stressed individuals who are sedentary or who are physically active.
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa : the NW-CHILD Study : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 109 –114 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.519More Less
Objectives. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among grade 1 learners, taking into account age, gender, race and school socioeconomic profile.
Methods. The study is based on the baseline prevalence of overweight and obesity as part of the ongoing 6-year longitudinal NW Child Health Integrated Learning and Development (NW-CHILD) study. Stratified random sampling was used to identify 20 schools from four educational districts across all five quintiles of schools in the North West Province (NWP) of South Africa (SA). A total of 816 (419 boys, 397 girls) grade 1 learners with a mean age of 6.80 (standard deviation 0.39) years participated in the study, including 567 black learners, 218 white learners and 31 learners from other race groups. Standard anthropometric techniques and international body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for children were used to determine overweight and obesity.
Results. A combined prevalence of overweight and obesity (Ow/Ob) of 11.1% was found, of which 7.5% were overweight and 3.6% obese. Although 7-year-old children showed a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (10.5%) than 6-year-old children (6.3%; p<0.05), obesity levels were more prevalent among 6-year-old children (4.7%) than 7-year-old children (2.3%). Although not significant, a higher prevalence of overweight (9.3 v. 6.4%) and obesity (4.3% v. 3.3%) was found in girls than boys. For the whole sample, white children displayed a significantly higher prevalence of Ow/Ob compared with black children (19.7% v. 8.8%; p<0.05), and the prevalence of Ow/Ob was higher in 4th- (18.1%) and 5th- (21.2%) quintile schools (which are associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES)) than in quintile 1 to quintile 3 schools (5.1%, 8.7%, 6.1%, respectively; p<0.05).
Conclusions. More than 10% of grade 1 learners in the NWP of SA were overweight or obese, with the prevalence being significantly lower in lower SES schools and among black children. Prevention strategies are needed to combat overweight and obesity, and the associated negative consequences of these health risks. Obesity levels in black children should also be monitored because of continuing economic transition, and taking into account increasing overweight and obesity in black South African adults.
Body mass index and associated physical activity levels in 7 - 10-year-old children in primary schools in Port Elizabeth : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 115 –118 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.551More Less
Background. Declining levels of physical activity coupled with the rising incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries are of health concern. Current daily recommendations for preadolescent children are to accumulate 60 min of moderate physical activity per day. In South Africa, physical education forms part of the life skills curriculum, but children have limited school time to engage in physical activity. As many obesogenic behaviours are learnt in childhood and track into adulthood, physical activity should be promoted at a young age and should be a research priority.
Objectives. To explore and determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and daily physical activity levels as expressed in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) in 7 - 10-year-old children in quintile-5 English-medium primary schools in Port Elizabeth.
Methods. A quantitative, descriptive, one-way, cross-sectional design utilising random sampling was used. A once-off survey comprised anthropometric assessment of height and weight of 713 participants. Age- and gender-specific prevalence rates of overweight, obesity and underweight were calculated based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off points. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and X2 tests were performed. A validated once-off interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was utilised to determine daily energy costs.
Results. The BMI of the majority of children fell within the norm and was coupled with high levels of daily physical activity (average of 893 METs). No significant relationship was found for BMI and physical activity (p=0.8).
Conclusion. Daily level of physical activity is not significantly related to BMI in urban children from an economically privileged setting.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 119 –122 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.555More Less
Background. Non-traumatic bicycle injuries are common. However, research available on non-traumatic injuries in amateur cyclists is more than a decade old, and most of the research on this topic has been done in Europe and America on professional cyclists in multi-day cycling events. An understanding of the common injuries may lead to appropriate prevention intervention.
Objective. To determine the incidence of overuse injuries in amateur cyclists preparing for participation in a 1-day cycle challenge.
Methods. A questionnaire was emailed to participants of the 2012 Momentum 94.7 Cycle Challenge, which amateur participants ≥18 years old were invited to complete. Data on demographics, training habits and the participants' injury profile in the preceding year were collected.
Results. Of the 3 300 respondents, 75% were male and 59% were between 30 and 50 years old. Non-traumatic injury, pain or neurological symptoms were reported by 88% of the respondents. The percentages of all respondents who experienced problems in the following anatomical areas were as follows: neck 34%, back 41%, hand/wrist 41%, buttock/perineum 41%, hip 7%, knee 33% and foot/ankle 24%. Knee pain was responsible for the need to stop training for the largest percentage of respondents. Neurological complaints were common in respondents who experienced neck, back, hand/wrist, buttock/perineum and foot/ankle problems.
Conclusion. Non-traumatic injuries in amateur cyclists are common, with back, hand/wrist and buttock/perineal symptoms the most frequent problems. Knee problems caused the greatest need to stop training and seek medical help.
Junior cricketers are not a smaller version of adult cricketers : a 5-year investigation of injuries in elite junior cricketers : original researchAuthor R.A. StretchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26, pp 123 –127 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.543More Less
Background. Injury surveillance is fundamental to preventing and reducing the risk of injury.
Objectives. To determine the incidence of injuries and the injury demographics of elite schoolboy cricketers over five seasons (2007 - 2008, 2008 - 2009, 2009 - 2010, 2010 - 2011 and 2011 - 2012).
Methods. Sixteen provincial age group cricket teams (under (U) 15 , U17 and U18) competing in national age-group tournaments were provided a questionnaire to complete. The questionnaires gathered the following information for each injury sustained in the previous 12 months: (i) anatomical site; (ii) month; (iii) cause; (iv) whether it was a recurrence of an injury from a previous season; (v) whether the injury had reoccurred during the current season; and (vi) biographical data. Injuries were grouped according to the anatomical region injured. All players were invited to respond, irrespective of whether an injury had been sustained, resulting in a response rate of 57%. The sample Statistical Analysis System was used to compute univariate statistics and frequency distributions.
Results. Of the 2 081 respondents, 572 (27%) sustained a total of 658 injuries. The U15 and U17 groups sustained 239 (36%) and 230 (35%) injuries, respectively, more than the 189 injuries sustained by the U18 group (29%). These injuries were predominantly to the lower limbs (38%), back and trunk (33%) and upper (26%) limbs, with 3% occurring to the head and neck. The injuries occurred primarily during 1-day matches (30%), practices (29%) and with gradual onset (21%). The primary mechanism of injury was bowling (44%) and fielding (22%). The injuries were acute (49%), chronic (41%) and acute-on-chronic (10%), with 26% and 47% being recurrent injuries from the previous and current seasons, respectively. Some similar injury patterns occurred in studies of adult cricketers, with differences in the nature and incidence of injuries found for the various age groups. The youth cricketers sustained more back and trunk injuries, recurrent injuries and more match injuries than the adult cricketers. The U15 group sustained less-serious injuries, which resulted in them not being able to play for between 1 and 7 days (58%), with more injuries occurring in the preseason period (24%) and fewer during the season (60%) compared with other age groups. The U15 and U17 groups sustained the most lumbar muscle strains, while the U18 groups sustained more serious injuries, resulting in them not being able to play for >21 days.
Conclusion. Young fast bowlers of all ages remain at the greatest risk of injury. Differences in the nature and incidence of injuries occurred between youth and adult cricketers, as well as in the different age groups. It is recommended that cricket administrators and coaches implement an educational process of injury prevention and management.