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- Volume 27, Issue 1, 2015
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 27, Issue 1, 2015
Volumes & issues
Volume 27, Issue 1, 2015
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.616More Less
A paediatric neurosurgeon wrote an opinion piece for the British Medical Journal on the unknown risks of youth rugby. He explained at the start of the article that he was entitled to an opinion, having spent time 'picking skull fragments out of the contused frontal lobes of a teenage rugby player'. He was also writing in his capacity as a 'rugby parent', having watched the game at close quarters.
Author N.K. SethiSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.595More Less
Both the referee and the ringside physician are entrusted with the safety of the boxer in the ring. The Uniform Boxing Rules (approved August 25, 2001, Amended August 2, 2002, Amended July 3, 2008) recognise the referee as the sole arbiter of a bout and the only individual authorised to stop a contest. Unified rules of mixed martial arts (MMA) and some boxing commissions recognise both the referee and the ringside physician as arbiters of a fight, and the only individuals authorised to enter the fight area at any time during competition and stop a fight when the combatant's safety is compromised. Irrespective of who stops the fight, the stoppage should be timely and fair to the combatants and their corners; a premature stoppage is unfair to the boxers, their corners, the promoter and the public, while a fight stopped too late risks serious injury and even death of the boxer.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 4 –11 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.565More Less
Background. Footscan technology allows for assessment of injury risk and walking mechanics, yet there is a dearth of normative data pertaining to the normal, injury-free foot in a South African (SA) context.
Objective. To generate normative tables from plantar pressure profile data gathered from students at an SA university.
Methods. The RS Footscan (RSscan, Belgium) system was used to measure the plantar pressure values of the foot. Ten anatomical landmarks of the foot were analysed: the hallux, lateral toes, five metatarsal heads, midfoot, and medial and lateral heel. These ten areas were grouped into one of three regions: forefoot, midfoot and heel. A total of 180 participants were subdivided as follows: gender (males, n=90; females, n=90); race (black, n=60; white, n=60; coloured, n=60). Each race group comprised 30 males and 30 females.
Results. Of the ten individual plantar pressure areas, the second and third metatarsal heads demonstrated the highest mean peak plantar pressure values. Of the three regions, the heel region was ascribed with the largest plantar pressure values. Black females, coloured males and coloured females yielded the highest pressure values, especially under the midfoot region of the foot. Black and white males and white females exhibited the lowest pressure under the foot, especially under the midfoot region.
Conclusion. The plantar pressure profile data generated in this study could serve to provide clinicians with a frame of reference when evaluating participants within the age range of 18 - 30 years.
The UEFA model in identification of types, severity and mechanism of injuries among professional footballers in the Nigerian Premier League : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 12 –15 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.514More Less
Background. Association football, otherwise known as soccer, is the most popular sport in the world. The increase in the popularity of the game and the expectations from players make injury risk in football high.
Objective. To describe the types, severity, prevalence and mechanism of injuries among professional footballers in the Nigeria Premier League (NPL).
Methods. The Union of European Football Association (UEFA) Injury Study Questionnaire was used for data collection. A total of 240 footballers from 11 clubs, who participated in the 2011/2012 NPL premiership season, was selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique, and the participants were studied using a prospective cohort study design for 6 months. Descriptive statistics of means, percentages and frequency distributions were used to answer the research questions.
Results. The mean (standard deviation) age, height and weight of the injured footballers was 22.9 (3.4) years, 1.69 (0.05) m and 71.3 (3.9) kg, respectively. There was a high injury prevalence (78%) associated with actual league games, whereas the incidence rate per 1 000-hour exposure was 300.2 exposure-hours from 19 games within 6 months. Sprain (32%) was the predominant type of injury recorded. The tackle event (34%) was the predominant mechanism of injury recorded, and 63% of the injuries led to 1 - 3 days of player absence from football activities. Most of the injuries were recurrent injuries (63%).
Conclusion. This study showed a high occurrence of injuries in the NPL, in particular associated with league (competitive) games. The findings of this study will serve to guide the development and implementation of injury prevention strategies in the NPL.
The incidence of injuries and exposure time of professional football club players in the Premier Soccer League during football season : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 16 –19 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.610More Less
Background. Data on the incidence of football injuries and exposure time of players during matches and training in the South African (SA) Premier Soccer League (PSL) are lacking.
Objective. To calculate the incidence of injuries and the exposure time (practice and match) of the players of a PSL team over a full season.
Methods. Injury and training data of the players in the squad (N=32) were recorded on a daily basis by the medical support staff, according to the methods of the Football Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) protocol.
Results. One hundred and thirty injuries were recorded in the season. The most affected body parts were the thigh (n=27, 21%) and ankle (n=27, 21%). The overall incidence was 13.4 injuries per 1 000 player-hours. The incidence during training was 6.6 injuries/1 000 player-hours and during matches 88.9 injuries/1 000 player-hours. The most frequent injury was haematoma/contusion/bruising (n=43, 33%). Of the total injuries, 12% were recurrent. Injury through contact with another player was high (62%). Seventy-six per cent of the injuries were not associated with any violation of the laws of the game. The average time off due to injury was 8 days. The total exposure time over the full season resulted in a combined average of 18 162 minutes (~303 hours).
Conclusion. These data differ from the data in European studies. Injury and exposure data measured throughout the season have the potential to identify risks and mechanisms of injuries. This study highlights the necessity for all clubs in the PSL to adopt a standardised injury monitoring programme, using standardised methodology, so that the management of professional players in SA may be improved.
Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional supplements in Zimbabwean football : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 20 –22 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.577More Less
Background. The use of medications by football players in many populations is known to be high. Data on African players are scarce.
Objective. To determine the magnitude of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and nutritional supplements by Zimbabwean football players.
Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study during the 2011/2012 Premier Soccer League football season. A total of 86 players responded to a self-administered questionnaire that assessed self-reported use of NSAIDs and nutritional supplements.
Results. All the participants admitted to taking NSAIDs, with 44% self-prescribing. Nutritional supplements were taken by 56% of the respondents. Of these, 21% took them on a daily basis and 40% did so without professional advice.
Conclusion. Regular, self-prescribed use of NSAIDs and nutritional supplements is high among Zimbabwean football players.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 23 –24 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.603More Less
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is relatively uncommon in the athletic population. Because of the subtle nature of the symptoms, the diagnosis is easily missed, which can lead to unnecessary prolonged discomfort and recovery time for the athlete. There is currently a lack of evidence in the literature concerning treatment and return-to-play protocols referring specifically to PSP within the athletic community. This case report highlights the predisposing and important factors in the history of a 34-year-old recreational male athlete who developed PSP. According to the knowledge of the authors, this report of PSP in a recreational athlete is the First of its kind described in South Africa. Owing to the possibility of life-threatening complications, it is important for sports physicians to be familiar with the important points in the history and to be made aware of the predisposing factors that may lead to PSP.